Physical and Chemical Assessment of Agricultural Plant Residues from some farming systems for their sustainable utilisation.
Keywords:Banana, Cocoa, Litter, Microelements, Oil palm, Para rubber, Organic waste
Agricultural residues, in general are parts of the plants left in the field after crops have been harvested or leaves that fall off as they age. Due to farming activities, large amounts of organic residues are generated daily. An adequate use of these residues in agricultural activities requires the characterization of their main properties. The chemical and physical characterization is important when planning the use and management of agricultural residues. In this study, chemical and physical properties of cocoa pod husk, senescent cocoa leaves, fresh and decaying banana pseudostem, fresh palm fronds, palm empty fruit bunches, palm male inflorescence and senescent rubber leaves were determined. The moisture content, pH, and total concentrations of P, S, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Zn, Cu, and B as well as available levels of P, K and Mg were analysed. The available levels of P, K and Mg ranged between 0.03 and 0.39%, 0.47 and 8.81% and 0.04 and 0.20% respectively. The total levels of Ca, K, Mg and P respectively ranged between 0.16 – 2.47%, 0.50 – 10.32%, 0.16 – 0.95% and 0.07 – 0.51%. The B, Cu, Fe, Mn, S and Zn concentrations ranged respectively between 10.73 – 43.67 mg/kg, 9.07 – 61.13mg/kg, 100.67 – 1828.67mg/kg, 46.23 – 1717.33mg/kg, 1016.67 – 1800.67mg/kg and 28.57 – 422.00mg/kg. The properties of these residues varied significantly and their uses will equally be different.
Key Words: Banana, Chemical, cocoa, oil palm, para rubber, physical properties, residues
2. Adejobi, K. B., Famaye, A. O., Akanbi, O.S.O., Ade osun, S. A. Nduka, A. B. and Adeniyi, D. O (2013). Potentials of cocoa pod husk ash as fertilizer and liming materials on nutrient uptake and growth performance of cocoa. Research Journal of Agriculture and Environmental Management. Vol. 2(9), pp. 243-251.
3. Ahmad, G., Jan, A., Arif, M., Jan, M. T. and Khattak, R. A. (2007). Influence of nitrogen and sulfur fertilization on quality of canola (Brassica napus L .) under rainfed conditions. Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B, 8(10): 731 –737.
4. Agyarko K and Asiedu E. K. (2012). Cocoa Pod Husk and Poultry Manure on Soil Nutrients and Cucumber Growth. Advances in Environmental Biology, 6(11): 2870-2874.
5. Appiah M.R, Ofori-Frimpong K, Afrifa A. A, Ameyaw K (2006). Sustainable cocoa production in Ghana through soil fertility management. In: Proceedings of the International Conference and the 17th and 18th Annual General Meetings of the Soil Science Society of Ghana. Vol. 17/18.
6. Ashade, O.O & Osineye O.M (2010). Effect of replacing maize with cocoa pod husk in the nutrition of Oreochromis Niloticus. Proceedings of fisheries society of Nigeria (FISON) ASCON, Badagry 25th-29th October, 2010
7. Bonvehí Josep Serra and Rossend Escolá Jordà (1998). Constituents of Cocoa Husks. Z. Naturforsch. 53c, 785-792.
8. Delve, R.J. and Probert, M.E., ed., (2004). Modelling nutrient management in tropical cropping systems. ACIAR Proceedings No. 114, 138p.
9. El-Sayed G. Khater (2015). Some Physical and Chemical Properties of Compost. International Journal of Waste Resources 5: 172. doi: 10.4172/2252-5211.1000172
10. Ho, L. H., Noor Aziah, A. A. and Rajeev Bhat (2012). Mineral composition and pasting properties of banana pseudo-stem flour from Musa acuminata X balbisiana cv. Awak grown locally in Perak, Malaysia. International Food Research Journal 19(4): 1479-1485.
11. Jacob, J. (2000) Rubber tree, man and environment. In: George, P. J., Jacob, C. K. (eds) Natural Rubber: Agromanagement and Crop processing, Rubber Board, Kottayam, India, 599–610.
12. Jing Gao, Fengfeng Kang, Hairong Han (2016). Effect of Litter Quality on Leaf-Litter Decomposition in the Context of Home-Field Advantage and Non-Additive Effects in Temperate Forests in China. Polish Journal of Environmental. Studies. Vol. 25, No. 5, 1911-1920.
13. Khalid H, Zin Z Zakaria and Anderson, J M. (2000). Nutrient cycling in an oil palm plantation: The effects of residue management practices during replanting on dry matter and nutrient uptake of young palms. Journal of Oil Palm Research Vol. 12 No.2. p. 29-37.
14. Knoepp, J. D., Coleman, D. C., Crossley, D. A. Jr. and Clark, J. S.(2000). Biological indices of soil quality: an ecosystem case study of their use. Forest Ecological Management: 138, 357–368.
15. Martius, C., Höfer, H., Garcia, M. V. B, Römke, J. and Hanagarth, W. (2004). Litter fall, litter stocks and decomposition rates in rainforest and agroforestry sites in central Amazonia, Nutrient Cycling in Agrosystems. 68, 137–154.
16. McLaughlin, M.J, Alston, A.M and Martin, J.K. (1988). Phosphorus cyling in wheat pasture rotations III. organic phosphorus turnover and phosphorus cycling. Australian Journal of Soil Research. 26: 343-353.
17. Mishra Gaurav and Rajesh Kumar (2016). Plant litter decomposition: drivers insight to the ecological process. European Journal of Biological Research 6 (3): 176-185DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.58752.
18. Naklang Kunnika, Anthony Whitbread, Rod Lefroy, Graeme Blair, Sodchol Wonprasaid, Yothin Konboon, Duangjai Suriya-arunroj (1999). The management of rice straw, fertilisers and leaf litters in rice cropping systems in Northeast Thailand: I. Soil carbon dynamics, Plant and Soil, vol. 209, no. 1, pp. 21–28.
19. Nanganoa Lawrence Tatanah and Jetro Nkengafac Njukeng (2018). Phosphorus Speciation by 31P NMR Spectroscopy in Leaf Litters and Crop Residues from Para Rubber, Cocoa, Oil Palm, and Banana Plantations in the Humid Forest Zone of Cameroon. Journal of Applied Chemistry Vol. 2018 (2018), https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/6290236
20. Nizami Syed Moazzam, Zhang Yiping and Sha Liqing (2018). Dynamics of root and leaf decomposition in chronosequence of rubber plantation (Hevea brasiliensis) in SW China. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 50(2): 791-799.
21. Nortey T N, D V Kpogo, A L Kpogo, A Naazie and E O K Oddoye (2015). Cocoa pod husk is a potential feed ingredient in laying hen diets. Livestock Research for Rural Development. 27 (6) .
22. Nurul Lyana Binti Mahmod (2015). Potential of oil palm empty fruit bunch and mesocarp fibre as possible coco peat substitute in fertigation system. Dissertation submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of bachelor of agriculture science, Horticulture and Landscape programme. Faculty of Sustainable Agriculture. University of Malaysia, Sabah.
23. Ojeda C.B. and F.S. Rojas (2005). Sample dissolution for elemental analysis: Microwave digestion. Encyclopedia of Analytical Science (Second Edition), 2005, Pages 153-163
24. Onene Onenema and Stefan Pietrzak (2002). Nutrient management in food production: Achieving agronomic and Environmental Targets. Ambio. A journal of the Human environment. Vol. 31. No 2. Pp 159-168.
25. Patil, R. G. and Kolambe, B. N. (2011). Development of value-added products from banana pseudostem. An Overview of Progress. National Agricultural Innovation Project (Component 2), 1-23 pp.
26. Priyasankar S.Chaudhuri, T.K.Pal and Gautam Bhattacharjee S.K. (2004). Rubber leaf litters (Hevea brasiliensis, var RRIM 600) as vermiculture substrate for epigeic earthworms, Perionyx excavatus, Eudrilus eugeniae and Eisenia fetida: Pedobiologia. Volume 47, Issues 5–6, 2 Pp. 796-80.
27. Ramu R, Shirahatti PS, Anilakumar KR, Nayakavadi S, Zameer F, Dhananjaya BL, et al. (2017). Assessment of nutritional quality and global antioxidant response of banana (Musa sp. CV. Nanjangud Rasa Bale) pseudostem and flower. Pharmacognosy Research. 9:S74‑83.
28. Schueller H, (1969). Die CAL – method eine neue methods zur Bestimmung des pflanzenverfugbaren phosphates in boden. Z. Pflanzenernahrung und Bodenkunde, German, 123: 48-63.
29. Schachtschabel P (1954). Das pflanzenverfugbare Magnesium im Boden und seine Bestimmung. Ztschr fpflanzenernahrung, Dungung und Bodenkunde. German. 67(112):9-23.
30. SAS Institute Inc.(2002). JMP Statistical discovery software (ver. 5). SAS. Drive, Cary, Nc, USA.
31. Saka S, M.V. Munusamy, M. Shibata, Y. Tono and H. Miyafuji (2008). Chemical constitutents of the different anatomical parts of the oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) for their sustainable utilization. JSPS-VCC Group seminar 2008, Natural Resources and Energy Environment 24-25 November 2008, Kyoto Japan.
32. Seephueaka P., V. Petcharatb and S. Phongpaichit. (2010). Fungi associated with leaf litter of para rubber (Hevea brasiliensis). Mycology, Vol. 1, No. 4, 213–227
33. Sharma, V.K.; Canditelli, M.; Fortuna, F. and Cornacchia, G. (1997). Processing of urban and agroindustrial residues by aerobic composting: Reviews in Energy Conservation and Management, 38:453-478.
34. Simpson B. K., J. H. Oldham, A. M. Martin (1985). Extraction of Potash from Cocoa Pod Husks Short communication. Agricultural Wastes, 13, 69-73
35. Syamsiro M., H. Saptoadi , B.H. Tambunan and N.A. Pambudi. (2012). A preliminary study on use of cocoa pod husk as a renewable source of energy in Indonesia. Energy for Sustainable Development, 16 74–77.
36. Teh Boon Sung Christopher (2016). Availability, use, and removal of oil palm biomass in Indonesia Working paper. Report prepared for the International Council on Clean Transportation. Dept. Land Management, Fac. of Agriculture, University of Putra Malaysia
37. Verghese, M., Sharma, A. C., Jacob, P. (2001). Addition of litter, its decomposition and nutrient release in rubber plantation in Tripura. Indian Journal of Natural Rubber Research 14, 116–124.
38. Wingkis R. (1998). Chemical composition of oilpalm empty fruit bunch and its decomposition in the field. Master of Agriculture Science degree thesis, Universiti Putra Malaysia.
39. Wortman C:S, Karamura E.B, and Gold C:S. (1994). Nutrient flows from harvested banana pseudostems. African crop science Journal, vol. 2, No. 2, 179-182.