Antibacterial and cytotoxic activities of Areca catechu L. (betel nut)

Authors

  • Md Shamim Akhter Khulna University
  • Md Shyfuzzaman Khan Khulna University,

Keywords:

Areca Catechu L, Betel Nut, Antibacterial Assay, Cytotoxicity, Brine Shrimp Lethality Bioassay

Abstract

The aim of the study was to evaluate the antibacterial and cytotoxic activities of acetone and ethanol extracts of A. catechu L.  Antibacterial activity was tested against selected gram positive bacteria of Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus species and gram negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Salmonella paratyphi, Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholera using well diffusion assay. Acetonic extract showed better antibacterial activity against E. coli (20.83 mm for 100 μl/well), S. typhi (20.17 mm for 100 μl/well), S. aureus (20.17 mm for 100 μl/well). The ethanolic extract showed better antibacterial activity against P. aeruginosa (18.17 mm for 100 μl/well), S. paratyphi (17.67 mm for 100 μl/well), Micrococcus species (19 mm for 100 μl/well). Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bacterial concentration (MBC) values were determined by using broth macro dilution assay which supports antibacterial potency of the extracts. Cytotoxicity was determined by brine shrimp lethality assay:  both extracts showed moderate cytotoxicity compared to vincristine sulphate (with LC50 of 0.99 μg/ml). The acetonic extract showed more cytotoxicity than the ethanolic extract with the LC50 values of 17.021 (μg/ml) and 20.136 (μg/ml). These findings are correlated with traditional medicinal uses of A. catechu and showed rationale for further investigation for screening out the possible bioactive constituents.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Md Shamim Akhter, Khulna University

Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering Discipline, Khulna University, Khulna-9208, Bangladesh

Md Shyfuzzaman Khan, Khulna University,

Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering Discipline, Khulna-9208, Bangladesh

References

Xing ZHANG, Jiao WU, Zhuang HAN, Wen-Li M, Hao-Fu D (2010) Antioxidant and cytotoxic phenolic compounds of areca nut (Areca catechu), Journal Chem Res Chin Univ, 26(1), 161-64.

Yan D, Peng W, Liu Y, Xie D, Hu M, Tao X, & Wu C (2016) Spectrum-effect relationships between high performance liquid chromatography fingerprints and bioactivities of charred areca nut, Trop J Pharm Res, 15(5), 1017-1024.

Amudhan MS, Begum VH, Hebbar KB (2012) A review on phytochemical and pharmacological potential of Areca catechu L. seed, Inter. J of Pharm Sc and Res, 3(11), 4151.

Heatubun CD, Dransfield J, Flynn T, Tjitrosoedirdjo SS, Mogea, JP, Baker WJ (2012) A monograph of the betel nut palms (Areca: Arecaceae) of East Malesia, Bot. J of the Lin Soc., 168(2), 147-173.

Shrestha J, Shanbhag T, Shenoy S, Amuthan A, Prabhu K, Sharma S, Kafle S (2010) Antiovulatory and abortifacient effects of Areca catechu (betel nut) in female rats, Indian J of pharma., 42(5), 306.

Khan S, Mehmood MH, Ali ANA, Ahmed FS, Dar A, Gilani AH (2011) Studies on anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of betel nut in rodents. J of Ethnopharma, 135(3), 654-661.

Bhandare AM, Kshirsagar AD, Vyawahare NS, Hadambar AA, & Thorve VS (2010) Potential analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of hydroalcoholic extract of Areca catechu L. nut. Food Chem. Toxicol., 48(12), 3412-3417.

Bhandare A, Kshirsagar A, Vyawahare N, Sharma P, Mohite R (2011) Evaluation of anti-migraine potential of Areca catechu to prevent nitroglycerin-induced delayed inflammation in rat meninges: Possible involvement of NOS inhibition, J of ethnopharma, 136(1), 267-270.

Wang CC, Lin YR, Liao MH, Jan TR (2013) Oral supplementation with areca-derived polyphenols attenuates food allergic responses in ovalbumin-sensitized mice, BMC com and alt med, 13(1), 154.

Ghate R, Patil VP, Hugar S, Matha NH, Kalyane NV (2014) Antihyperglycemic activity of Areca catechu flowers. Asian Pac J of Trop Dis, 4, S148-S152.

Ghayur MN, Kazim SF, Rasheed H, Khalid A, Juman, MI, Choudhary MI, Gilani AH (2011) Identification of antiplatelet and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory constituents in betel nut, J of Chinese integra med, 9(6), 619-625.

Boniface P, Verma SK, Cheema HS, Darokar MP, Pal A (2014) Evaluation of antimalarial and antimicrobial activites of extract and fractions from Areca catechu, Inter J of Infec Dis, 21, 228-229.

Das K, Tiwari RKS, Shrivastava DK (2010) Techniques for evaluation of medicinal plant products as antimicrobial agent: Current methods and future trends, J of med plants res, 4(2), 104-111.

Huang PL, Chi CW, Liu TY (2013) Areca nut procyanidins ameliorate streptozocin-induced hyperglycemia by regulating gluconeogenesis, Food Chem. Toxicol.,, 55, 137-143.

Bharat M, Verma DK, Shanbhag V, Rajput RS, Nayak D, Amuthan A (2014) Ethanolic extract of oral Areca catechu promotes burn wound healing in rats, Int J Pharm Sci Rev Res, 25(2), 145-148.

Bhat R, Ganachari S, Deshpande R, Ravindra G, Venkataraman A (2012) Rapid Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Areca Nut (Areca catechu) Extract Under Microwave-Assistance. J of Cluster Sc., 24, 107–114. doi:10.1007/s10876-012-0519-2.

Mehrtash H, Duncan K, Parascandola M, David A, Gritz ER, Gupta PC, Mehrotra R, Amer Nordin AS, Pearlman PC, Warnakulasuriya S, Wen CP, Zain RB, Trimble EL (December 2017) Defining a global research and policy agenda for betel quid and areca nut, Lancet Oncol. 18 (12), e767–e775. doi:10.1016/S1470-2045(17)30460-6. PMID 29208442.

Garg A, Chaturvedi P, Gupta PC (2014) A review of the systemic adverse effects of areca nut or betel nut, Indian J of Med and Paedi Onco., 35 (1): 3–9. doi:10.4103/0971-5851.133702. PMC 4080659. PMID 25006276.

Auluck, A, Hislop G, Poh C, Zhang L, Rosin MP ( 2009) Areca nut and betel quid chewing among South Asian immigrants to Western countries and its implications for oral cancer screening, Rural and Rem Health. 9 (2). PMID 19445556.

Ahuja SC, Ahuja U (2011) Betel Leaf and Betel Nut in lndia: History and Uses. Asian Agri-History, 15, 13-35.

Peter GO, Tung-Shan C, Tsu-Wang S (2011) Characterization of the Psychological, Physiological and EEG Profile of Acute Betel Quid Intoxication in Naïve Subjects, PLoS One, 6(8), e23874. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0023874

Padmavathamma V (2011) Areca nut in Indian economy-present status and future strategies. E-Journal of Dentistry, 1 (3): 46-49.

Gupta PC, Warnakulasuriya S, (2002) Global epidemiology of areca nut usage, Addic biol, 7(1), 77-83.

Peng W, Liu YJ, Wu N, Sun T, He XY, Gao YX, Wu CJ (2015) Areca catechu L.(Arecaceae): a review of its traditional uses, botany, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology, J of ethnopharma, 164, 340-356.

Bauer AW, Kirby WMM., Sherris JC, Turck M, (1966) Antibiotic susceptibility testing by a standardized single disk method, American j of clinic patho, 45(4), 493-496.

Balouiri M, Sadiki M, Ibnsouda SK (2016) Methods for in vitro evaluating antimicrobial activity: A review, J of Pharma Anal., 6(2), 71-79.

Hadacek, F, Greger H (2000) Testing of antifungal natural products: methodologies, comparability of results and assay choice. Phytochemical Analysis, an Inter J of Pl Chem and Biochem Tech, 11(3), 137-147.

Michael AS, Thompson CG, Abramovitz, M (1956) Artemia salina as a test organism for bioassay, Science, 123(3194), 464-464.

Bauman RW (2013) Microbiology with diseases by taxonomy. Pearson Higher Ed.

Dahiya P, Purkayastha S (2012) Phytochemical screening and antimicrobial activity of some medicinal plants against multi-drug resistant bacteria from clinical isolates. Indian j of pharma sc, 74(5), 443.

Magaldi S, Mata-Essayag S, De Capriles CH, Perez C, Colella MT, Olaizola C, Ontiveros Y (2004) Well diffusion for antifungal susceptibility testing. Inter j of infec dis, 8(1), 39-45.

Valgas C, Souza SMD, Smânia EF, Smânia Jr, A (2007) Screening methods to determine antibacterial activity of natural products, Brazilian J of Microb., 38(2), 369-380.

Syahmi ARM, Vijayarathna S, Sasidharan S, Latha LY, Kwan YP, Lau YL, Shin LN, Chen Y (2010) Acute oral toxicity and brine shrimp lethality of Elaeis guineensis Jacq., (oil palm leaf) methanol extract, Molecules, 15(11), 8111-8121.

Meyer BN, Ferrigni NR, Putnam JE, Jacobsen LB, Nichols DJ, McLaughlin JL (1982) Brine shrimp: a convenient general bioassay for active plant constituents, Planta medica, 45(05), 31-34.

Goldman E, Green LH (2015) Practical handbook of microbiology, CRC press.

Martindale WH (1910) Essential oil in relation to their antiseptic powers, Purfum. Essent. Oil Rec., 1, 266-274.

Hoffmann C, Evans AC (1911) The Use of Spices as Preservatives. Indus & Engin Chem, 3(11), 835-838.

Newman DJ, Cragg GM (2012). Natural products as sources of new drugs over the 30 years from 1981 to 2010. J of nat. prod, 75(3), 311-335.

Shen B (2015) A new golden age of natural products drug discovery, Cell, 163(6), 1297-1300.

Cowan MM (1999) Plant products as antimicrobial agents. Clinical microbiol rev., 12(4), 564-582.

Pelczar MJ, Chan ECS, Krieg NR (1988) Control of microorganisms, the control of microorganisms by physical agents, Microbiol., 469, 509.

Basson NJ (1996) The effect of areca nut on salivary and selected oral microorganisms. Inter dental j, 46(4), 350-356.

Neidhardt FC, Ingraham JL, Schaechter M (1990) Physiology of the bacterial cell: a molecular approach, Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates.

Lowy FD (1998) Staphylococcus aureus infections. New England j of med, 339(8), 520-532.

Kaper JB, Nataro JP, Mobley HL (2004).Pathogenic escherichia coli, Nat rev microbiol, 2(2), 123.

Ogston A (1882) Micrococcus poisoning, J of anat and physiol, 16(4), 526.

Shapiro S, Meier A, Guggenheim B (1994) The antimicrobial activity of essential oils and essential oil components towards oral bacteria, Oral microbiol and immunol, 9(4), 202-208.

Manila A, Sujith S, Kiran GS, Selvin J, Shakir C (2009) Cytotoxic potentials of red alga, Laurencia brandenii collected from the Indian coast, Global J Pharmacol, 3(2), 90-94.

Carballo JL, Hernández-Inda ZL, Pérez P, García-Grávalos, MD (2002) A comparison between two brine shrimp assays to detect in vitro cytotoxicity in marine natural products. BMC biotech, 2(1),17.

Ullah MO, Haque M, Urmi KF, Zulfiker AHM, Anita ES, Begum M, Hamid K (2013) Anti–bacterial activity and brine shrimp lethality bioassay of methanolic extracts of fourteen different edible vegetables from Bangladesh, Asian Pac j of trop biomed, 3(1),1-7.

Al-Snafi AE (2017) The pharmacology and medical importance of Dolichos lablab (Lablab purpureus)-A review, IOSR J of Pharm, 7(2), 22-30.

Poulton JE (1983) Cyanogenic compounds in plants and their toxic effects, Handbook of natural toxins, 1, 117-157.

Hasan MM, Rahman SA, Akhter MS (2019) Antibacterial and Cytotoxic Activity of Tamarindus Indica (Tamarind) Seeds, J. Bio-Sci., 27, 83-88. doi: https://doi.org/10.3329/jbs.v27i0.44673.

Rahman SA, Akhter MS (2018) Antibacterial and cytotoxic activity of seeds of white hyacinth bean (Lablab purpureus L. sweet ‘white’), J of Adv Biotech and Experimental Therap., 1(2), 49-54.

Rahman SA, Akhter MS (2018) Antibacterial and cytotoxic activities of Carica papaya L. (Papaya) seeds, Khulna Univ. Studies, 15 (1), 371-48.

Published

2020-04-30

How to Cite

Md Shamim Akhter, & Md Shyfuzzaman Khan. (2020). Antibacterial and cytotoxic activities of Areca catechu L. (betel nut). To Chemistry Journal, 5, 55-68. Retrieved from http://purkh.com/index.php/tochem/article/view/735

Issue

Section

Research Articles

Most read articles by the same author(s)