To Chemistry Journal 2019-05-03T05:24:51+00:00 Mandeep Kaur Open Journal Systems <p><strong>To Chemistry</strong> is a peer-reviewed journal that publishes original research articles as well as review articles on all aspects of fundamental and applied chemistry.</p> A Successful Start Is Vital For Strong Foundation 2019-05-01T04:17:39+00:00 Sumit Kumar 2019-04-30T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Activation Parameter and Solvent Effect on Solvolysis of Ethyl Benzoate in Aquo-Organic Solvent System. 2019-04-30T10:41:47+00:00 A.K. Singh <p>The rate of hydrolysis of hydrolysis of ethyl benzoate were measured volumetric over the temperature range of 20<sup>0</sup>c to 40<sup>0</sup> water-methanol mixture at different composition. The different solvation in initial and transition state is due to decrease in rate with varying the composition of mixture. The influence of solvent on reaction rate was examined in term of activation parameter. The increase in values of DG<sup>* </sup>and simultaneous depletion in values of DH<sup>*</sup> and DS<sup>*</sup> with solvent composition reveals that the reaction is Enthalpy domination and Entropy controlled. The value of iso-kinetic temperature is less than 300 shows the weak interaction between solvent and solute.</p> 2019-04-17T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Preparation and Characterization of PSS/Pt/GR/GCE Graphene Composite Modified Electrode 2019-04-30T10:41:49+00:00 Jinjie Zhang Yingping Qi Yongfeng Shen Hua Li <p>The Poly(Sodium Styrenesulfonate) / nano Pt / graphene (PSS/Pt/GR) composite modified electrode material was prepared and characterized by transmission electron microscopy(TEM), infrared spectroscopy and alternating current impedance. The electrochemical behavior of tyrosine was determined on PSS/Pt/GR/GCE composite modified electrode. The results show that the PSS/Pt/GR composite modified electrode material is synthesized well. This electrode can be used to determine tyrosine with high sensitivity and accuracy, which could have promising applicability for the determination of other substances.</p> 2019-04-17T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Environment and Development: Bioenergy for Future 2019-05-01T04:20:48+00:00 Abdeen Mustafa Omer <p>People are relying upon oil for primary energy and this will continue for a few more decades. Other conventional sources may be more enduring, but are not without serious disadvantages. The renewable energy resources are particularly suited for the provision of rural power supplies and a major advantage is that equipment such as flat plate solar driers, biomass technologies, wind machines, etc., can be constructed using local resources. Without the advantage results from the feasibility of local maintenance and the general encouragement such local manufacture gives to the buildup of small-scale rural based industry. Biomass is an important material for the sustainable source of energy. It can generate solid, liquid and gaseous products under different Thermochemical conversion technologies. Two products namely, bio-oil and charcoal were produced and their characteristics were analysed. There is a need for some further development to suit local conditions, to minimise spares holdings, to maximise the interchangeability of the engine parts, and of the engine applications. Emphasis should be placed on full local manufacture. It is concluded that renewable environmentally friendly energy must be encouraged, promoted, implemented and demonstrated by a full-scale plant (device) especially for use in remote rural areas.</p> <p>This communication discusses a comprehensive review of biomass energy sources, environment and sustainable development. This includes all the biomass energy technologies, energy efficiency systems, energy conservation scenarios, energy savings and other mitigation measures necessary to reduce emissions globally. The current literature is reviewed regarding the ecological, social, cultural and economic impacts of biomass technology. This study gives an overview of present and future use of biomass as an industrial feedstock for production of fuels, chemicals and other materials. However, to be truly competitive in an open market situation, higher value products are required.</p> 2019-04-17T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Characterization and Compositional Analysis of Indian Black Aggregate as a Concrete Raw Material 2019-05-01T04:22:35+00:00 Md. Zaved Hossain Khan <p>The study is conducted to find the applicability of Indian black aggregate as a concrete material through a series of physiochemical and surface morphological investigation. The report reveals the effects of different chemical properties on concrete performance which ultimately affect life period of any structure. Mineralogical and Chemical characterization of the aggregate was analysed by UV visible spectroscopy (UV-vis), X-Ray Fluorescence (ED-XRF) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) used to know Surface morphology of the aggregate. It was observed that studied aggregate contains high amount of MgO (4.36%) and Fe<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3 </sub>(14.84%). However, it is quite stable up to 800 <sup>o</sup>C with loss of only 1.58% of gross weight. The surface morphology analysis clearly revealed the existence of Calcite, Quartz and Dolomite materials in studied aggregate.</p> 2019-04-30T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Method of Determinining Radii and Enthalpies of The Formation of Poliatomic Ions 2019-04-30T10:41:52+00:00 Boris Georgievich Golovkin <p>Based on the Born-Haber cycle, a method is proposed for determining the thermochemical radii and enthalpies of the formation of polyatomic ions. In order to be able to compare the values ​​of the enthalpies of the formation of ions and salts, a method is proposed for normalizing these values ​​by relating them not to one mole of a substance, but to an averaged gram atom. The method is approved on vanadium oxide compounds. The values ​​of 22 radii and enthalpies of the formation of polyatomic ions containing vanadium, the energies of the crystal lattices and the enthalpies of formation of &nbsp;81 vanadate are calculated. The obtained values ​​are compared with the experimental data.</p> 2019-04-17T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Electrostatic Discharge and Energetic Materials 2019-05-01T04:25:35+00:00 Lemi Türker <p>In this short review, excerptions from the literature on electrostatic discharge&nbsp; which includes&nbsp; physics of electric spark, charging of organic molecules, sensitivity measurements, some theory and predictions, and electrostatic discharge&nbsp; &nbsp;values of some group of explosives, including nitro compounds, nitramines, composites thermites, etc., have been presented.</p> 2019-04-17T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Voltammetric Study For Cuso4 in Presence of Safranin (Saf ) in Hcl Solutions using New Multicarbon Nanotubes Doped with Nano Tantalum Pentoxide Working Electrode 2019-04-30T10:41:54+00:00 Esmhassan Arafa Gooma Moustafa A Diab, M.A.Diab Adel Z Sonbati, Prof Gannat S Abd Elraoof, Mrs <p>Redox reaction for CuSO<sub>4</sub> in the absence and presence of safranin (suffranine) was studied. We applied new electrode made from multicarbon nanotubes (MCNT) and nano (Ta<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>)&nbsp; in a mixture with 80% MCNT and 20% (Ta<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>) by weight. Two drops paraffin oil was added, drying till dryness in tip of copper electrode covered with heat shrink polymer to do good isolation. The electrode was purified and put in oven at 90°C till working in the morning. Scan rate effect was done for the redox reactions in absence and presence of safranin to explain the type of the used reactions in the study electrode chemically. The stablilty constants and Gibbs free energies of complexation resulting from the interaction of CuSO<sub>4</sub> with safranin in 0.1 M HCl at 27.5°C were evaluated and discussing their resulting data.</p> 2019-04-17T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A pH-Metric Study of Stability Constant of ternary Complexes Involving Transition Metals, Nicotinamide and Penicillamine 2019-05-02T05:39:00+00:00 Dr. Shivaji Laxman Jadhav <p>Role of Pharmacologically important compounds (Nicotinamide and Penicillamine) as ligand has been focused on the coordination complexes with with transition metal ions such as Fe(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II). Complexation of metal ions with Nicotinamide as primary ligand whereas Penicillamine as secondary ligand has been evaluated by the potentiometric technique at 25±0.1°C and 0.1M (NaClO4) ionic strength. The protonation constants of the ligand were calculated from the half integral method of potentiometric pH titrations data of solutions according to Irving and Rossetti’s method.</p> 2019-04-17T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Influence of Particle Size on the Anticonvulsant Activity of Propoxazepam 2019-05-02T05:16:47+00:00 Anatoliy Reder Vitalii Larionov Nikolay Golovenko Sergey Andronati <p style="margin: 16px 0px;"><span style="margin: 0px; color: #222222; font-family: 'Segoe UI';">The granulometric composition of new analgesic substance (7-bromo-5-(o-chlorophenyl)-3-propoxy-1,2-dihydro-3H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one) was characterized by methods of crystals microscopy and lazer diffraction,. The single polymorphic phase demonstrated by differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction analysis, Raman and IR-spectroscopy. On the base of the anticonvulsive effect on mice in compare to coarse </span><span style="margin: 0px; color: #222222; font-family: 'Segoe UI';">с</span><span style="margin: 0px; color: #222222; font-family: 'Segoe UI';">crystalline sample the conclusion about the higher pharmacological effect for the disperse sample had been demonstrated.</span></p> 2019-04-30T10:30:07+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Theory of Square Wave Voltammetry of Two Reversible Electrode Reactions Connected by The Reversible Chemical Reaction 2019-04-30T10:42:05+00:00 Milivoj Lovrić Šebojka Komorsky-Lovrić <p>A theory of the mechanism that consists of two reversible electrode reactions coupled by kinetically controlled reversible chemical reaction is developed for square wave voltammetry on stationary planar electrode. The influences of frequency and the concentration of electro-inactive chemical reactant on the responses are investigated for thermodynamically stable intermediate. The limits of three types of responses are calculated and the formula for the estimation of the forward rate constant of chemical reaction is proposed.</p> 2019-04-30T10:33:43+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Caffeine as A Catalyst for A Four-Component Synthesis of Dihydropyrano [2, 3-C]Pyrazoles in Water 2019-04-30T10:42:08+00:00 Mohammad Bakherad Amir H Amin Rahele Doosti <p>We describe a one-pot four component synthesis of pyrano[2,3-<em>c</em>]pyrazoles from hydrazine hydrate or phenyl hydrazine, ethyl acetoacetate, an aldehyde, and malononitrile in the presence of catalytic amounts of a caffeine as a green catalyst in water at 50 ºC. The present protocol offers the advantages of a clean reaction, a short reaction time, a high product yield, and an environmentally-friendly, easily-purified, and economically-available catalyst.</p> 2019-04-17T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Physical and Chemical Assessment of Agricultural Plant Residues from some farming systems for their sustainable utilisation. 2019-04-30T10:42:11+00:00 Njukeng Jetro Nkengafac Sylvia Kratz Ewald Schnug <p>Agricultural residues, in general are parts of the plants left in the field after crops have been harvested or leaves that fall off as they age. Due to farming activities, large amounts of organic residues are generated daily. An adequate use of these residues in agricultural activities requires the characterization of their main properties. The chemical and physical characterization is important when planning the use and management of agricultural residues. In this study, chemical and physical properties of cocoa pod husk, senescent cocoa leaves, fresh and decaying banana pseudostem, fresh palm fronds, palm empty fruit bunches, palm male inflorescence and senescent rubber leaves were determined. The moisture content, pH, and total concentrations of P, S, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Zn, Cu, and B as well as available levels of P, K and Mg were analysed. The available levels of P, K and Mg ranged between 0.03 and 0.39%, 0.47 and 8.81% and 0.04 and 0.20% respectively. The total levels of Ca, K, Mg and P respectively ranged between 0.16 – 2.47%, 0.50 – 10.32%, 0.16 – 0.95% and 0.07 – 0.51%. The B, Cu, Fe, Mn, S and Zn concentrations ranged respectively between 10.73 – 43.67 mg/kg, 9.07 – 61.13mg/kg, 100.67 – 1828.67mg/kg, 46.23 – 1717.33mg/kg, 1016.67 – 1800.67mg/kg and 28.57 – 422.00mg/kg. The properties of these residues varied significantly and their uses will equally be different.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Key Words: Banana, Chemical, cocoa, oil palm, para rubber, physical properties, residues</p> 2019-04-30T10:40:32+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Development and Characterization of Sodium Alginate Beads for Metformin 2019-05-03T05:24:51+00:00 Hitesh Chopra <p>The metformin is anti diabetic drug. In this study the sodium alginate beads were prepared with different oils preparing emulsion first. The drug is entrapped and measured for its drug content and swelling index. The beads were prepared and evaluated on different parameters.&nbsp;</p> 2019-04-30T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##