http://purkh.com/index.php/tochem/issue/feed To Chemistry Journal 2018-08-30T07:50:59+00:00 Dr. Nasrallah M. Deraz tochem@purkh.com Open Journal Systems <p><strong>To Chemistry</strong> is a peer-reviewed journal that publishes original research articles as well as review articles on all aspects of fundamental and applied chemistry.</p> http://purkh.com/index.php/tochem/article/view/143 Annual Reviewer Acknowledgement 2018-08-30T07:50:23+00:00 Chief Editor editor@purkh.com <p>The Editorial team of the would like to thank the reviewers for their work in refereeing manuscripts during 2018.</p> 2018-08-29T06:30:51+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://purkh.com/index.php/tochem/article/view/88 Pyrano [2,3-d] thiazole: synthesis, reactions and biological applications 2018-08-30T07:50:56+00:00 mohamed abdalrashid salem m_eltayyeb@hotmail.com mohamed helal m.h.helal.chem@gmail.com mohamed el-Gaby m_elgaby@hotmail.com yosry ammar yossry@yahoo.com moustafa Gouda dr_mostafa_chem@yahoo.com samir abbas samiryoussef98@yahoo.com <p style="margin: 0px 0px 13.33px; text-align: justify; line-height: 150%; unicode-bidi: embed; direction: ltr;">This review describes the synthesis and reactions of Pyrano[2,3-<em>d</em>] thiazole derivatives and to highlight the effects of compounds containing the Pyrano[2,3-<em>d</em>] thiazole moiety in important biological applications.</p> 2018-08-29T06:09:38+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://purkh.com/index.php/tochem/article/view/100 Sustainable development of bioheat from agriculture wastes and environment 2018-08-30T07:50:49+00:00 Abdeen Mustafa Omer abdeenomer2@yahoo.co.uk <p class="Abstract">This communication discusses a comprehensive review of biomass energy sources, environment and sustainable development. This includes all the biomass energy technologies, energy efficiency systems, energy conservation scenarios, energy savings and other mitigation measures necessary to reduce emissions globally. The current literature is reviewed regarding the ecological, social, cultural and economic impacts of biomass technology. This study gives an overview of present and future use of biomass as an industrial feedstock for production of fuels, chemicals and other materials. However, to be truly competitive in an open market situation, higher value products are required. Results suggest that biomass technology must be encouraged, promoted, invested, implemented, and demonstrated, but especially in remote rural areas.</p> 2018-08-29T06:07:46+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://purkh.com/index.php/tochem/article/view/101 Antioxidant activity of chloroform extract of Inula Racemosa from Kashmir Himalayas 2018-08-30T07:50:45+00:00 Javid Ahmad Banday javidbanday@nitsri.net Romaisa Lateef romaiiim@gmail.com Khursheed Ahmad Bhat kabhat@iiim.res.in Suresh Chandra schandra@iiim.res.in <p>Antioxidant activity of chloroform extract of root parts of <em>Inula racemosa</em> was evaluated by measuring the scavenging activity of the extract on stable 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl radical (DPPH) exhibiting an interesting antioxidant profile. The reducing power was determined using a modification of Zou method. Metal chelating activity of the extract was determined at concentrations of 20, 30, 50 and 100 µg/mL, taking citric acid as standard. The extract displayed significant activity.</p> 2018-08-29T06:05:59+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://purkh.com/index.php/tochem/article/view/106 Anısotropy of some haxagonal systems 2018-08-30T07:50:42+00:00 Faeq A. A. Radwan frdwnk@gmail.com <p>The norm of elastic constant tensor and the norms of the irreducible parts of the elastic constants of some hexagonal systems (Apatite Fluor apatite, Hydroxyapatite, Beryl, Beryllium, Beryllium oxide, Biotite, Cadmium, Cadmium selenide, Cadmium sulfide, Cadmium telluride, Cesium copper chloride, Calcium-magnesium, Cancrinite, Cerium fluoride, Cobalt, Cobalt nickel, Co – 32 wt % Ni, Copper chloride, Dunite, Dysprosium, Erbium, Gadolinium, Gadolinium-yttrium, Gd – 40 at % Y, Gallium selenide, Graphite, Hafnium, Holmium, Indium bismuth, Indium selenide, Lead germinate vanadate, Lithium iodate, Lithium iodate, Yttrium, Zinc oxide (Zincite), Zinc selenide,and Zinc telluride) are calculated. The relation of the scalar parts norm and the other parts norms and the anisotropy of the materials are presented. The norm ratios are used as a criterion to present the anisotropy degree of the properties of these materials.&nbsp;</p> 2018-08-29T06:04:24+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://purkh.com/index.php/tochem/article/view/112 1H-NMR study of unheated and heated marijuana and hashish extracts from cannabis seizures in Egypt 2018-08-30T07:50:38+00:00 Alaa El-Din Gaafar alaa09@yahoo.com Omar Abdel -Salam omasalam@hotmail.com Shaimaa ElShebiney shaimaaelshebiney@gmail.com Hend Ezzat hend_ahmed16@yahoo.com <p><strong>: </strong>Is to detect the presence of delta-9-tertrahydrocannabinol (THC) and other cannabinoids in samples of cannabis seized in Egypt with the use of nuclear magnetic resonance (<sup>1</sup>H-NMR). <strong>Methods: </strong>Extracts of cannabis seizures were prepared from marijuana (the dried flowering tops and leaves) or from hashish (the compressed plant resin). Cannabis extraction was carried out on unheated or heated samples using either chloroform or methanol. <sup>1</sup>H-NMR spectrum for cannabis extract was determined in CDCl<sub>3 </sub>with a JEOL ECA-500. <strong>Results: </strong><sup>1</sup>H-NMR indicate that the extracts of the cannabis samples contain THC as the major constituent. The <sup>1</sup>H-NMR of heated cannabis extracts showed only THC while the <sup>1</sup>H-NMR spectra of unheated extracts showed the presence of THC as a major compound beside minor fraction of cannabinol (CBN), both are decraboxylated. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>The <sup>1</sup>H-NMR spectra indicate the presence of THC as the major compound.</p> 2018-08-29T06:02:50+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://purkh.com/index.php/tochem/article/view/114 Study on properties of epoxy resin and polyurethane modified with organic silicon 2018-08-30T07:50:28+00:00 Hua LI lihua@zzu.edu.cn Meichen Liu lihua@zzu.edu.cn Yingping Qi lihua@zzu.edu.cn Yongfeng Shen lihua@zzu.edu.cn <p>In order to solve the problem of poor compatibility of traditional resins, improve its adhesion, toughness, corrosion,&nbsp;heat resistance, salt spray, and other properties of the coating, the epoxy resin and polyurethane was modified with organic silicon. Some modified methods were introduced and summarized, the prospects for the research development in the future were look forward.</p> 2018-08-29T05:58:10+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://purkh.com/index.php/tochem/article/view/115 Research progress on water-soluble chitosan 2018-08-30T07:50:24+00:00 Xuemei Wang 1923637605@qq.com Yingping Qi 1923637605@qq.com Yongfeng Shen 1923637605@qq.com Hua Li lihua@zzu.edu.cn <p>Chitosan has good film-forming property, adsorption, biocompatibility, biodegradability and antimicrobial properties, but it can only be dissolved in weak acidic aqueous solution and cannot be directly dissolved in water, which greatly limits its application. In order to increase its solubility in water, chitosan is modified, the research on the water-soluble derivatives of chitosan is reviewed in this paper, and its application in the protection of paper relics is briefly introduced.</p> <p>Chitin is a kind of natural polysaccharide macromolecular polymer synthesized by biology in animals and plants, which mainly comes from shrimp shelsl, crab shells, insect shells and so on. Chitosan (CS) is obtained by deacetylation of chitin. The chitin is deacetylated under homogeneous conditions, and water-soluble product can be obtained by controlling the degree of deacetylation at about 50%<sup> [1]</sup>. The primary hydroxyl group, secondary hydroxyl group and amino group on the glucosamine unit in the chitosan molecular chain, with strong reactivity, which can be modified and embellished by functionalization to improve its solubility.</p> 2018-08-29T05:48:25+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://purkh.com/index.php/tochem/article/view/92 Complexation of 1,4-bis (3-(2-pyridyl) pyrazol-1-ylmethyl) benzene (1,4-PPB) with Cu (II), Co (II), and Ni (II): 2018-08-30T07:50:52+00:00 Khaled Muftah Elsherif elsherif27@yahoo.com Ahmed Zubi a.zubi@sci.misuratau.edu.ly Adel Najar noon1161970@yahoo.com Eiman Bazina lung.201088@gmail.com <p>The stability and composition of the complexes of 1,4-bis (3-(2-pyridyl) pyrazol-1-ylmethyl) benzene (1,4-PPB) with Cu (II), Co (II), Ni (II): have been investigated using spectrophotometric method in mixed (1:1) solvent of ethanol and water. Various experimental parameters, which include pH, ionic strength, solvent composition, and time, have been studied. The stoichiometry and formation constant of each complex have been evaluated using Job's method. Spectrophotometric results show the formation of 1:1 complexes with stability order of Co &gt; Ni &gt; Cu. Molar absorptivity values of the complexes have also been determined.</p> 2018-08-29T06:08:38+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://purkh.com/index.php/tochem/article/view/113 Differentiation Between Natural and Commercial Bee Venoms Using Fluorescence Spectroscopy 2018-08-30T07:50:31+00:00 Abdul Mosbah Gbaj abdulgbaj1@hotmail.com <p>Honey bee venom (HBV, <em>A. m. scutellata</em>) contains polypeptides [melittin, mast cell degranulating peptide (MCD), adolapin and apamin] and enzymes.The aim of the present study was to differentiate between commercial and natural bee venoms using aqueous olive leaf extract (AOLE) employing fluorescence techniques. Tryptophan mainly responsible for the fluorescence and hence widely used as a tool to monitor conformational changes in proteins. Changes in the fluorescence intensities with blue shifts were obtained with bee venoms. Binding of AOLE constituents near the active site of the enzyme could be evidenced and possible modes of interaction are discussed. The fluorescence method used was rapid and sensitive and was able to differentiate between commercial and natural bee venoms utilizing AOLE.</p> 2018-08-29T06:00:51+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://purkh.com/index.php/tochem/article/view/130 Study on the application of oligomers in paper reinforcement protection 2018-08-30T07:50:20+00:00 Shanshan Jin 1060227436@qq.com Hua Li lihua@zzu.edu.cn Yongfeng Shen lihua@zzu.edu.cn Yingping Qi lihua@zzu.edu.cn <p>In order to improve the strength of paper, solve the problem of poor permeability of traditional resins to paper, the low molecular weight hexamethylenediisocyanate (HDI) trimer was investigated, and the chemical and physical properties of paper samples were tested in this work. Results showed the paper treated by HDI trimer had good mechanical property, the tensile strength was increased from 1105 to 4151 N/m, the folding endurance was increased from 20.8 to 275; and had good glossiness and brightness. Therefore, the prepared HDI trimer has great application prospects in the protection of paper.</p> 2018-08-29T05:46:29+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##