To Chemistry Journal <p><strong>To Chemistry</strong> is a peer-reviewed journal that publishes original research articles as well as review articles on all aspects of fundamental and applied chemistry.</p> PURKH en-US To Chemistry Journal <p>Authors retain the copyright of their manuscripts, and all Open Access articles are distributed under the terms of the&nbsp;<a href="">Creative Commons Attribution License</a>, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided that the original work is properly cited.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Annual Reviewer Acknowledgement <p>The Editorial team of the would like to thank the reviewers for their work in refereeing manuscripts during 2018.</p> Chief Editor ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-08-29 2018-08-29 1 2 Pyrano [2,3-d] thiazole: synthesis, reactions and biological applications <p style="margin: 0px 0px 13.33px; text-align: justify; line-height: 150%; unicode-bidi: embed; direction: ltr;">This review describes the synthesis and reactions of Pyrano[2,3-<em>d</em>] thiazole derivatives and to highlight the effects of compounds containing the Pyrano[2,3-<em>d</em>] thiazole moiety in important biological applications.</p> mohamed abdalrashid salem mohamed helal mohamed el-Gaby yosry ammar moustafa Gouda samir abbas ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-08-29 2018-08-29 1 2 114 144 Sustainable development of bioheat from agriculture wastes and environment <p class="Abstract">This communication discusses a comprehensive review of biomass energy sources, environment and sustainable development. This includes all the biomass energy technologies, energy efficiency systems, energy conservation scenarios, energy savings and other mitigation measures necessary to reduce emissions globally. The current literature is reviewed regarding the ecological, social, cultural and economic impacts of biomass technology. This study gives an overview of present and future use of biomass as an industrial feedstock for production of fuels, chemicals and other materials. However, to be truly competitive in an open market situation, higher value products are required. Results suggest that biomass technology must be encouraged, promoted, invested, implemented, and demonstrated, but especially in remote rural areas.</p> Abdeen Mustafa Omer ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-08-29 2018-08-29 1 2 145 178 Antioxidant activity of chloroform extract of Inula Racemosa from Kashmir Himalayas <p>Antioxidant activity of chloroform extract of root parts of <em>Inula racemosa</em> was evaluated by measuring the scavenging activity of the extract on stable 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl radical (DPPH) exhibiting an interesting antioxidant profile. The reducing power was determined using a modification of Zou method. Metal chelating activity of the extract was determined at concentrations of 20, 30, 50 and 100 µg/mL, taking citric acid as standard. The extract displayed significant activity.</p> Javid Ahmad Banday Romaisa Lateef Khursheed Ahmad Bhat Suresh Chandra ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-08-29 2018-08-29 1 2 179 185 Anısotropy of some haxagonal systems <p>The norm of elastic constant tensor and the norms of the irreducible parts of the elastic constants of some hexagonal systems (Apatite Fluor apatite, Hydroxyapatite, Beryl, Beryllium, Beryllium oxide, Biotite, Cadmium, Cadmium selenide, Cadmium sulfide, Cadmium telluride, Cesium copper chloride, Calcium-magnesium, Cancrinite, Cerium fluoride, Cobalt, Cobalt nickel, Co – 32 wt % Ni, Copper chloride, Dunite, Dysprosium, Erbium, Gadolinium, Gadolinium-yttrium, Gd – 40 at % Y, Gallium selenide, Graphite, Hafnium, Holmium, Indium bismuth, Indium selenide, Lead germinate vanadate, Lithium iodate, Lithium iodate, Yttrium, Zinc oxide (Zincite), Zinc selenide,and Zinc telluride) are calculated. The relation of the scalar parts norm and the other parts norms and the anisotropy of the materials are presented. The norm ratios are used as a criterion to present the anisotropy degree of the properties of these materials.&nbsp;</p> Faeq A. A. Radwan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-08-29 2018-08-29 1 2 186 192 1H-NMR study of unheated and heated marijuana and hashish extracts from cannabis seizures in Egypt <p><strong>: </strong>Is to detect the presence of delta-9-tertrahydrocannabinol (THC) and other cannabinoids in samples of cannabis seized in Egypt with the use of nuclear magnetic resonance (<sup>1</sup>H-NMR). <strong>Methods: </strong>Extracts of cannabis seizures were prepared from marijuana (the dried flowering tops and leaves) or from hashish (the compressed plant resin). Cannabis extraction was carried out on unheated or heated samples using either chloroform or methanol. <sup>1</sup>H-NMR spectrum for cannabis extract was determined in CDCl<sub>3 </sub>with a JEOL ECA-500. <strong>Results: </strong><sup>1</sup>H-NMR indicate that the extracts of the cannabis samples contain THC as the major constituent. The <sup>1</sup>H-NMR of heated cannabis extracts showed only THC while the <sup>1</sup>H-NMR spectra of unheated extracts showed the presence of THC as a major compound beside minor fraction of cannabinol (CBN), both are decraboxylated. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>The <sup>1</sup>H-NMR spectra indicate the presence of THC as the major compound.</p> Alaa El-Din Gaafar Omar Abdel -Salam Shaimaa ElShebiney Hend Ezzat ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-08-29 2018-08-29 1 2 193 199 Study on properties of epoxy resin and polyurethane modified with organic silicon <p>In order to solve the problem of poor compatibility of traditional resins, improve its adhesion, toughness, corrosion,&nbsp;heat resistance, salt spray, and other properties of the coating, the epoxy resin and polyurethane was modified with organic silicon. Some modified methods were introduced and summarized, the prospects for the research development in the future were look forward.</p> Hua LI Meichen Liu Yingping Qi Yongfeng Shen ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-08-29 2018-08-29 1 2 200 207 Research progress on water-soluble chitosan <p>Chitosan has good film-forming property, adsorption, biocompatibility, biodegradability and antimicrobial properties, but it can only be dissolved in weak acidic aqueous solution and cannot be directly dissolved in water, which greatly limits its application. In order to increase its solubility in water, chitosan is modified, the research on the water-soluble derivatives of chitosan is reviewed in this paper, and its application in the protection of paper relics is briefly introduced.</p> <p>Chitin is a kind of natural polysaccharide macromolecular polymer synthesized by biology in animals and plants, which mainly comes from shrimp shelsl, crab shells, insect shells and so on. Chitosan (CS) is obtained by deacetylation of chitin. The chitin is deacetylated under homogeneous conditions, and water-soluble product can be obtained by controlling the degree of deacetylation at about 50%<sup> [1]</sup>. The primary hydroxyl group, secondary hydroxyl group and amino group on the glucosamine unit in the chitosan molecular chain, with strong reactivity, which can be modified and embellished by functionalization to improve its solubility.</p> Xuemei Wang Yingping Qi Yongfeng Shen Hua Li ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-08-29 2018-08-29 1 2 208 213 Complexation of 1,4-bis (3-(2-pyridyl) pyrazol-1-ylmethyl) benzene (1,4-PPB) with Cu (II), Co (II), and Ni (II): <p>The stability and composition of the complexes of 1,4-bis (3-(2-pyridyl) pyrazol-1-ylmethyl) benzene (1,4-PPB) with Cu (II), Co (II), Ni (II): have been investigated using spectrophotometric method in mixed (1:1) solvent of ethanol and water. Various experimental parameters, which include pH, ionic strength, solvent composition, and time, have been studied. The stoichiometry and formation constant of each complex have been evaluated using Job's method. Spectrophotometric results show the formation of 1:1 complexes with stability order of Co &gt; Ni &gt; Cu. Molar absorptivity values of the complexes have also been determined.</p> Khaled Muftah Elsherif Ahmed Zubi Adel Najar Eiman Bazina ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-08-29 2018-08-29 1 2 214 223 Differentiation Between Natural and Commercial Bee Venoms Using Fluorescence Spectroscopy <p>Honey bee venom (HBV, <em>A. m. scutellata</em>) contains polypeptides [melittin, mast cell degranulating peptide (MCD), adolapin and apamin] and enzymes.The aim of the present study was to differentiate between commercial and natural bee venoms using aqueous olive leaf extract (AOLE) employing fluorescence techniques. Tryptophan mainly responsible for the fluorescence and hence widely used as a tool to monitor conformational changes in proteins. Changes in the fluorescence intensities with blue shifts were obtained with bee venoms. Binding of AOLE constituents near the active site of the enzyme could be evidenced and possible modes of interaction are discussed. The fluorescence method used was rapid and sensitive and was able to differentiate between commercial and natural bee venoms utilizing AOLE.</p> Abdul Mosbah Gbaj ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-08-29 2018-08-29 1 2 224 228 Study on the application of oligomers in paper reinforcement protection <p>In order to improve the strength of paper, solve the problem of poor permeability of traditional resins to paper, the low molecular weight hexamethylenediisocyanate (HDI) trimer was investigated, and the chemical and physical properties of paper samples were tested in this work. Results showed the paper treated by HDI trimer had good mechanical property, the tensile strength was increased from 1105 to 4151 N/m, the folding endurance was increased from 20.8 to 275; and had good glossiness and brightness. Therefore, the prepared HDI trimer has great application prospects in the protection of paper.</p> Shanshan Jin Hua Li Yongfeng Shen Yingping Qi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-08-29 2018-08-29 1 2 229 233