To Chemistry Journal <p><strong>To Chemistry</strong> is a peer-reviewed journal that publishes original research articles as well as review articles on all aspects of fundamental and applied chemistry.</p> en-US <p>Authors retain the copyright of their manuscripts, and all Open Access articles are distributed under the terms of the&nbsp;<a href="">Creative Commons Attribution License</a>, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided that the original work is properly cited.</p> <p><a href="" rel="bookmark"><strong>To Chemistry Journal</strong></a>&nbsp;allow the author(s) to retain publishing rights without restrictions.</p> (Mandeep Kaur) (Gurdev Singh) Mon, 31 Dec 2018 07:34:02 +0000 OJS 60 N-heterocyclic Carbenes Sumit Kumar ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 30 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Renewable Energy Technologies for Future and Sustainable Development <p>People are relying upon oil for primary energy and this will continue for a few more decades. Other conventional sources may be more enduring, but are not without serious disadvantages. The renewable energy resources are particularly suited for the provision of rural power supplies and a major advantage is that equipment such as flat plate solar driers, wind machines, etc., can be constructed using local resources. Without the advantage results from the feasibility of local maintenance and the general encouragement such local manufacture gives to the build-up of small-scale rural based industry. This communication comprises a comprehensive review of energy sources, the environment and sustainable development. It includes the renewable energy technologies, energy efficiency systems, energy conservation scenarios, energy savings in greenhouses environment and other mitigation measures necessary to reduce climate change. This study gives some examples of small-scale energy converters, nevertheless it should be noted that small conventional, i.e., engines are currently the major source of power in rural areas and will continue to be so for a long time to come. There is a need for some further development to suit local conditions, to minimise spares holdings, to maximise the interchangeability of the engine parts, and of the engine applications. Emphasis should be placed on full local manufacture. It is concluded that renewable environmentally friendly energy must be encouraged, promoted, implemented and demonstrated by a full-scale plant (device) especially for use in remote rural areas.</p> Abdeen Mustafa Omer ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 30 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Secondary Metabolites and Bioactivities of Melastoma Malabathricum (L.) Smith: An Anti-Diarrheal Plant of Bangladesh <p><em>Melastoma malabathricum</em> (L.) Smith; a naturally growing plant of Bangladesh is investigated in the present experiment for its secondary metabolites, cytotoxic and antibacterial activities. Among the secondary metabolites alkaloid, flavonoid, sterol, tannin and glycoside found to be present while saponin is absent in its leaf. Ethanolic extract of <em>M. malabathricum</em> leaf showed significant cytotoxicity with the LC50 value of 19.38μg/ml.&nbsp; In the antibacterial screening, the highest zone of inhibition record was 8 mm (at 100mg/ml) and the lowest was 5 mm (at 50mg/ml). These significant cytotoxic and antibacterial activities also corroborate its ethno-medicinal practices.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Minhajur Rahman, Nayema Ferdous, ANM Alamgir ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 30 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Biosorption of Eriochrome black T (EBT) Onto Waste Tea Powder: Equilibrium and Kinetic Studies <p>Biosorption of EBT molecules from aqueous solutions onto waste Tea powder (WTP) have been examined in a batch biosorption process. The biosorption procedure was found to be dependent on biosorbent dose, pH of solution, initial dye concentration, and contact time. The experimental equilibrium biosorption data were inspected by Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin ̶ Radushkevic isotherms models. The Langmuir model gave the best fit by higher correlation coefficient (R<sup>2 </sup>= 0.997, it assumes as monolayer adsorption). The maximum biosorption capacities determined from the Langmuir isotherm model was 111.11 mg/g, at optimum circumstances. The kinetic studies showed that the biosorption operation of the EBT dye obeyed well pseudo-second-order model. According to the determined biosorption capacity, waste tea powder is considered to be as an effective, low cost, and environmentally friendly biosorbent for the removal of EBT dye from aqueous solutions.</p> Khaled Muftah Elsherif, Ashraf El-Hashani, Kahled Edbey, Farah Alfaqih, Mariam Alomammy, Salima Alomammy ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 30 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Implementing Sustainable Technologies for Greener Environment <p>Over the years, all parts of a commercial refrigerator, such as the compressor, heat exchangers, refrigerant, and packaging, have been improved considerably due to the extensive research and development efforts carried out by academia and industry. However, the achieved and anticipated improvement in conventional refrigeration technology are incremental since this technology is already nearing its fundamentals limit of energy efficiency is described is ‘magnetic refrigeration’ which is an evolving cooling technology. The word ‘green’ designates more than a colour. It is a way of life, one that is becoming more and more common throughout the world. An interesting topic on ‘sustainable technologies for a greener world’ details about what each technology is and how it achieves green goals. Recently, conventional chillers using absorption technology consume energy for hot water generator but absorption chillers carry no energy saving. With the aim of providing a single point solution for this dual purpose application, a product is launched but can provide simultaneous chilling and heating using its vapour absorption technology with 40% saving in heating energy. Using energy efficiency and managing customer energy use has become an integral and valuable exercise. The reason for this is green technology helps to sustain life on earth. This not only applies to humans but to plants, animals and the rest of the ecosystem. Energy prices and consumption will always be on an upward trajectory. In fact, energy costs have steadily risen over last decade and are expected to carry on doing so as consumption grows.</p> Abdeen Mustafa Omer ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 30 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Synthesis, Crystal Structure and Antimicrobial Properties of 1-Diphenylmethylpiperazine-1,4-Diium Tetrachloridocuprate <p>New organic/inorganic hybrid (C<sub>17</sub>H<sub>22</sub>N<sub>2</sub>)[CuCl<sub>4</sub>] was elaborated and studied by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The compound crystallizes in the orthorhombic Pbca space group. The isolated [CuCl<sub>4</sub>]<sup>2-</sup> tetrahedra are slightly distorted building a 0-D anionic framework. The double protonation of the organic cation establish N—H···Cl interactions between organic and inorganic moieties leading to self-organized structure. Infrared, UV-Visible and photoluminescence studies were carried out. The in-vitro antibacterial and antifungal activity of the title salt against several microorganisms were studied. The purity of the material was controlled by Rietveld analysis based on structural investigations and X-ray powder diffraction.</p> Sonia Mokaddem, Hadda-Imene Ouzari, Nedra Korbi, Habib Boughzala ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 30 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Adsorption Studies of Crystal Violet From Aqueous Solution Using Low Cost Material: Equilibrium and Kinetics Studies <p>Crystal violet (CV), one of the toxic dyes which are extensively used for dyestuffs, textile, paper and plastics industries. CV does not easily biodegrades in aqueous medium and show harmful effect on aquatic as well as human life. In the present work adsorption studies of CV onto husk powder of Red gram crop (<em>Cajanuscajan</em>) seed was examined in aqueous solution at 27.8ºC. The effects of initial concentration, adsorbent dose, temperature, and contact time etc were determined. Highest 81.49% adsorption efficiency recorded was for 50 mg/L solution concentration onto 2.5g of husk powder of Red gram crop seed. The applicability of Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm model was investigated, and the Langmuir adsorption isotherm model exhibited the best fit than Freundlich isotherm model with the experimental data. The adsorption follows pseudo-second-order kinetics.</p> Mazahar Farooqui, Dattatraya Jirekar, Gajanan Sanap, D. D Kayande ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 30 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Structural Effects of Silicon Substitution on Hydroxyapatite Structure with High Substitution Ratio By Rietveld’s Analysis <p>The silicon-substituted hydroxyapatite (Si-HA) with three different Si-substitution levels were synthesized via aaqueous precipitation method, in the absence of any surfactants and organic solvents. The composition of the Si-substituted HA phases and effect of silicon substitution on the crystal structurewere investigated by Rietveld refinements from powder X-ray diffraction data. The results show that the final compounds are oxy-hydroxyapatites, a chemical formula for the Si-substituted HA phases with indication of the incorporated silicate amount is proposed.</p> Brahim Chafik El Idrissi, Ahmed El Yacoubi, Abdellah Rezzou ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 30 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Synthesis And Characterization Of Methacrylate Based Polymeric Additives For Crude Petroleum Oil <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong>Wax deposition in crude oil especially at low temperature causes serious problem during its storage and transportation since this deposited wax gradually immobilizes the oil. Thus, waxy crude oils have high pour point resulting lots of handling problems. To solve this problem, a number of flow improvers (FI) or pour point depressants (PPD) have been prepared. But still it is a challenging aspect of this research area to find out the perfect chemistry with an improved efficiency and cost effective additives over the conventional one. In this context and in continuation of our effort for the development of additive systems for lube and crude oils, homo polymer of decyl methacrylate and its copolymers with styrene and vinyl acetate at different percentage composition in the presence of benzoyl peroxide (BPO) as initiator have been prepared. All the prepared polymers are characterised by FT-IR, NMR and Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC). The prepared additives showed excellent performance as flow improver (FI) or pour point depressant (PPD) in crude oil.</p> P Ghosh, Sultana Yeasmin, M Hoque ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 30 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Interaction of EDNA With Proton-A DFT Treatment <p>A composite of EDNA, with proton in vacuum have been<strong> considered</strong> within the constraints of density functional theory at the levels of B3LYP/6-31++G(d,p) (restricted and unrestricted) and ωB97X-D/6-311+G(d,p). The results of structure optimization indicated that unexpectedly hydrogen molecule production occurs by the interaction of proton and a methylenic hydrogen of EDNA resulting a carbocation formation on the explosive molecule. The remnant of the nitramine molecule is stabilized partly by the nearby nitro oxygen atoms through space. The calculated IR and UV- VIS spectra of the species were obtained and discussed.</p> Lemi Türker ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 30 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 An Organo-Catalyst Mediated Synthesis of Chalcones of Dehydroacetic Acid And Determination of Their Anti-Oxidant Activity. <p>A diverse series of chalcones of dehydroacetic acid were synthesized and subjected to antioxidant activity. Highest DPPH scavenging effect was observed in case of&nbsp; <strong>HR 4</strong>&nbsp; displaying IC<sub>50 </sub>of 4.18 mg/ml in comparison to the standard ascorbic acid (IC<sub>50</sub> 0f 4.04 mg/ml). However the highest hydroxyl radical scavenging effect was displayed by <strong>HR 25</strong> exhibiting (IC<sub>50 &nbsp;</sub>10.21). Keeping in view the very low cytotoxicity issues of most of the chalcone derivatives of dehydroacetic acid, this study provides an important aspect with regard to the use of dehydroacetic acid based derivatives as antioxandts.</p> Tabassum Ara, Hafiz Ul Laha ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 30 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Staircase Voltammetry using Rotating Disk Electrode <p>A theory of staircase voltammetry on the rotating disk electrode is developed. The simulation is based on the method of variable diffusion layer thickness. Critical parameters that define the form of responses are calculated.</p> Milivoj Lovrić, Šebojka Komorsky Lovrić ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 30 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Experiments on The Effects of Reagants and Electricity on Seed Germination Growth and Viability <p>Most plants develop from seeds. Dry seeds under dormant condition show no sign of life. Only on the availability of stimulants like water, an adequate temperature etc., do seeds undergo biochemical reactions and develop in to plants. Generally the first and most important thing for seeds to germinate is the availability of an optimum quantity of water. Under all circumstances seeds are soaked in ‘<em>plain</em>’ water before germination. They swell up, their surfaces become smooth and slowly radicles protrude. Various chemical changes occur within a seed during germination. Now these reactions may be altered by use of reagents. If the chemical natures of the constituents of seed layers are known, it may be possible to change the chemicals by suitable reactions. For E.g. if aldehydic group be present, it may either be oxidized or reduced. But if this occurs the entire process of germination and plant growth ‘<em>should</em>’ be affected. In this paper chemical effects on seed germination have been expounded in detail.</p> Parantap Nandi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 30 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Oxidant 1, 3-Dichloro-5-5-Dimethylhydantoin and 5, 5-Dimethylhydantoin with Different Substrates: The Kinetic Measurements <p>The kinetic measurement with different concentration of oxidant 1,3-dichloro-5,5-dimethylhydantoin and 5,5-dimethylhydantoin with ℓ–alanine, &nbsp;ℓ-glycine and ℓ–valine. The catalytic effect of acid in the reaction rate reveal an interaction between oxidants species H<sub>2</sub>O<sup>+</sup>Cl and substrates. The observed order of reactivity of ℓ-amino acids (ℓ-glycine &gt; ℓ–alanine &gt; ℓ-valine) was explained on the basis of hydrolysis of reacting species.</p> Dr Arvind Prasad Dwivedi, Shweta Neeraj, S. S. Parihar ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 30 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000