Computer Reviews Journal <p><em>Computer Reviews</em> is scientific, international peer-reviewed/Referred online journal that is devoted to fields of&nbsp;computing to provide rapid publication of articles frequently in its issues.</p> en-US <p>Authors retain the copyright of their manuscripts, and all Open Access articles are distributed under the terms of the&nbsp;<a href="">Creative Commons Attribution License</a>, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided that the original work is properly cited.</p> <p><a href="" rel="bookmark">Computer Reviews Journal</a> allows the author(s) to retain publishing rights without restrictions.</p> <p><a href="" rel="license"><img src="" alt="Creative Commons License"></a>&nbsp; This Journal is licensed under a&nbsp;<a href="" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</p> (Gurdev Singh) (Bavneet Kaur) Sat, 31 Aug 2019 04:32:16 +0000 OJS 60 Computation of Lebesgue’s Space-Filling Curve <p>The means of realizing or approximating the Lebesgue space-filling curve (SFC) with binary arithmetic on a uniformly spaced binary grid are not obvious, one problem being its formulation in terms of ternary representations; that impediment can be overcome via use of a binary-oriented Cantor set.&nbsp; A second impediment, namely the Devil’s Staircase feature, also created by the role of the Cantor set, can be overcome via the definition of a “working inverse”, thereby providing means of achieving compatibility with such a grid. The results indicate an alternative way to proceed, in realizing an approximation to Lebesgue’s SFC, which circumvents any complication raised by Cantor sets and is compatible with binary and integer arithmetic. Well-known constructions such as the z-curve or Morton order, sometimes considered in association with Lebesgue’s SFC, are treated as irrelevant.</p> Arthur R Butz Copyright (c) 2019 Arthur R Butz Fri, 30 Aug 2019 04:49:19 +0000 Robust RLS Wiener State Estimators In Linear Discrete-Time Stochastic Systems With Uncertain Parameters <p>This paper proposes the robust estimation technique for the signal and the state variables with respect to the state-space model having the general types of system matrices in linear discrete-time stochastic systems with the uncertain parameters. It is assumed that the signal and degraded signal processes are fitted to the finite order autoregressive (AR) models. By fitting the signal process to the AR model, the system matrix for the signal is transformed into the controllable canonical form. By using the system matrix, the existing robust RLS Wiener filter and fixed-point smoother are adopted to estimate the signal. Concerning the state estimation, the existing robust RLS Wiener filter calculates the filtering estimate of the signal. By replacing the observed value with the robust filtering estimate of the signal in the existing RLS Wiener filtering and fixed-point smoothing algorithms, the robust filtering and fixed-point smoothing estimates of the signal and the state variables are calculated.</p> <p>The simulation result shows the superior estimation characteristics of the proposed robust estimation technique for the signal and the state variables in comparison with the existing &nbsp;RLS Wiener filter, the robust Kalman filter, and the existing robust RLS Wiener filter and fixed-point smoother.</p> Seiichi Nakamori Copyright (c) 2019 Seiichi Nakamori Fri, 30 Aug 2019 04:49:47 +0000 Geographic Information Systems: A Survey <p>At its core GIS or Geographical Information System, is a mapping tool that allows various types of information to be linked to geolocation. With advances in Big Data technologies, the availability of a large and ever-increasing stream of geolocated data, the new services based on geolocation that are used by massive numbers of people especially on mobile devices, GIS systems are becoming fundamental and increasingly important to large numbers of individuals as well as businesses and industry. The purpose of this paper is to review the current state of the art of GIS technology and provide a summary view of its functionality and the major issues around its use. It is aimed to be readable by a wide readership familiar with computing technologies but not necessarily versed in GIS.</p> Alexis Daniels, Cris Koutsougeras Copyright (c) 2019 Alexis Daniels, Cris Koutsougeras Fri, 30 Aug 2019 04:50:57 +0000 Robust RLS Wiener Fixed-Lag Smoother for Discrete-Time Stochastic Systems with Uncertain Parameters <p>This paper, by combining the robust recursive least-squares (RLS) Wiener filter and the RLS Wiener fixed-lag smoothing algorithm, proposes the robust RLS Wiener fixed-lag smoothing algorithm. In the robust estimation problem, it is assumed that the system and observation matrices include some uncertain parameters. With the observations generated by the state-space model including the uncertain parameters, the robust RLS Wiener fixed-lag smoother estimates the signal recursively as the time advances. Both the signal and the degraded signal processes are fitted to the finite order auto-regressive (AR) models. The robust RLS Wiener fixed-lag smoother uses the following information. (1) The covariance function of the state for the degraded signal. (2) The cross-covariance function of the state for the signal with the state for the degraded signal. (3) The observation matrices for the signal and the degraded signal. (4) The system matrices for the signal and the degraded signal. (5) The variance of the white observation noise. A numerical simulation example shows that the robust RLS Wiener fixed-lag smoother, proposed in this paper, is superior in estimation accuracy to the H-infinity RLS Wiener fixed-point smoother and the RLS Wiener fixed-lag smoother. In the appendix, by using MAXIMA and MATLAB, the derivation method of the coefficients, used in the robust RLS Wiener fixed-lag smoothing algorithm, is shown.</p> Seiichi Nakamori Copyright (c) 2019 Seiichi Nakamori Fri, 30 Aug 2019 04:51:27 +0000 A Framework For A Blood Seeker - Donor Matching System <p>The work designed, implemented and evaluated the blood seeker-donor (BSD) matching system. The system comprises of a backend server and a mobile application that serves as the main interaction interface between the users and the system. This is with the view to providing a computerized system that enables blood seekers and blood donation centers in the Nigerian geographic space to find and communicate with prospective blood donors, in a fast and efficient manner. The system connects the users using the blood type compatibility, relative location between the users, and other blood donation related attributes specified by the users. The backend service of the system was implemented using the Firebase platform. The mobile application was implemented using Java programming language on the Android platform. The results of the evaluation showed that; on a scale of 1 – 10, the system has a mean score of 7.02 for its effectiveness. The mean score for ease-of-use is 7.17 and the score for learnability is 7.39. The work concluded that geo-location technologies, through the use of mobile applications, can provide an easier, faster and efficient means of finding and communicating with prospective blood donors.</p> Segun Aina, Rasheed Sulayman, Samuel Okegbile, Ronke Lawal, Adeniran Oluwaranti Copyright (c) 2019 Segun Aina, Rasheed Sulayman, Samuel Okegbile, Ronke Lawal, Adeniran Oluwaranti Fri, 30 Aug 2019 04:52:33 +0000 A Study of The Application Of Simulation Software for Business Processes <p>This paper reports on the experiences of using two popular business process simulation (BPS) software packages. BPS is a technique, which assists companies in mimicking their everyday operations to find ways in which to improve and develop them in order to achieve either productivity, financial or risk-free gains. There are many computer packages available on the market, and it is important to have an idea of the type of software that can promote these benefits further. The two software packages investigated in this study are Witness by the Lanner Group and Simul8 by the Simul8 Corporation. These packages are used by organisations as management tools to optimise their internal practices. A practical evaluation of both packages has been undertaken, using the model building of case studies in both Witness and Simul8. Comparisons were made, with a number of conclusions and recommendations, and the advantages and disadvantages of each package are given. This study is different from other investigations as it focuses on evaluating the user experience rather than a traditional comparison of the statistical output of the reference models.</p> Amanda Wiggin, Muhammad Latif, Rameez Khalid Copyright (c) 2019 Amanda Wiggin, Muhammad Latif, Rameez Khalid Fri, 30 Aug 2019 00:00:00 +0000 A Theoretical Overview of Mobile Networks Environment in Ecuador Prior To 5G <p>Many countries in the Latin American region experience the technology gap when new technologies are either developing or in testing scenarios. Telecommunications services provider must be encouraged, allowing universal access to broadband networks. According to telecommunication analysts, a Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth results when broadband penetration increases. With this background, there should not be considerations in delays regarding the technology expansion for improving data and mobile communications or for the deployment of coming technologies. This paper presents an analysis of regulatory aspects of mobile networks in the Republic of Ecuador for visualizing the current situation regarding Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) and the advent of 5G, especially in aspects such as infrastructure, penetration and economic development. The purpose is that the reader has an understanding of how government policies in accordance with international recommendations and the participation of those involved in the telecommunications sector encourage technological advances in an emerging country.</p> Vladimir Sanchez Padilla, Lissette Quimis Zambrano, Diana Jácome Rodriguez Copyright (c) 2019 Vladimir Sanchez Padilla, Lissette Quimis Zambrano, Diana Jácome Rodriguez Fri, 30 Aug 2019 04:54:24 +0000 Diabetic Retinopathy Detection & Segmentation using Color Image Processing <p>Diabetic Retinopathy has become a serious issue in the recent past being one of the primary causes for the loss of vision in diabetic patient. The primary motive of this project is to develop an automated technique for the detection of diabetic retinopathy using fundus images. This project involves the processing of the fundus images especially for the detection of diabetic retinopathy which is confirmed by the presence of microaneurysms, exudates, etc. Here, a novel approach has been adopted to perform image segmentation of all these visible stages in case of diabetic retinopathy and not only determine the stage of diabetic retinopathy but also give some more insights related to the disease. This project is completely done by utilizing the tools of Color Image Processing Viz. Segmentation technique, CLAHE technique, morphological operations, etc. Later, a comparative test was performed to test the correctness of the algorithm using various Diabetic Retinopathy Fundus Images &amp; Normal Fundus Images. The algorithm seems to be at par with other approaches used in the modern world today to solve the problem of Diabetic Retinopathy and enables speedy diagnosis by doctors. &nbsp;</p> Kaushick Krishnakanta Parui, Balakrushna Tripathy Copyright (c) 2019 Kaushick Krishnakanta Parui, Balakrushna Tripathy Fri, 30 Aug 2019 04:54:56 +0000 Cross-Layer Design of Dynamic Link Prediction Power Control Algorithm in Wireless Ad hoc Networks <p>In wireless communication era, Dynamic Link Prediction based Cross-Layer Power Control Algorithm (DLP-CLPCA) in wireless ad hoc networks provides a joint solution for the power consumption protocol as well as nodes link availability.&nbsp; The Conventional design of ad-hoc network protocols is built on the standard OSI model which has failed to relate with RSS problems, whereas the physical, datalink, network and transport layer has been influenced.&nbsp; Due to this, the early unavailability of nodes occurs and frequent route break during the transmission. To overcome the constraint, developed the Dynamic Link Prediction based Cross-Layer Power Control Protocol to forecast the route earlier maximizes the link availability and create the optimum routing path during the transmission. The proposed link prediction algorithm is implemented in NS-2 simulator with the performance metrics as throughput, delay and energy consumption as a parameter values.</p> Arivoli A, P. Narayanasamy Copyright (c) 2019 Arivoli A, P. Narayanasamy Fri, 30 Aug 2019 04:55:48 +0000 Cloud Computing and Cloud Automata as A New Paradigm for Computation <p>Cloud computing addresses how to make right resources available to right computation to improve scaling, resiliency and efficiency of the computation. We argue that cloud computing indeed, is a new paradigm for computation with a higher order of artificial intelligence (AI), and put forward cloud automata as a new model for computation. A high-level AI requires infusing features that mimic human functioning into AI systems. One of the central features is that humans learn all the time and the learning is incremental. Consequently, for AI, we need to use computational models, which reflect incremental learning without stopping (sentience). These features are inherent in reflexive, inductive and limit Turing machines. To construct cloud automata, we use the mathematical theory of Oracles, which include Oracles of Turing machines as its special case. We develop a hierarchical approach based on Oracles with different ranks that includes Oracle AI as a special case. Discussing a named-set approach, we describe an implementation of a high-performance edge cloud using hierarchical name-oriented networking and Oracle AI-based orchestration. We demonstrate how cloud automata with a control overlay allows microservice network provisioning, monitoring and reconfiguration to address non-deterministic fluctuations affecting their behavior without interrupting the overall evolution of computation.</p> Mark Burgin, Eugene Eberbach, Rao Mikkilineni Copyright (c) 2019 Eugene Eberbach, Mark Burgin, Rao Mikkilineni Fri, 30 Aug 2019 04:56:21 +0000 Implementing and Evaluating the Performance Metrics Using Energy Consumption Protocols in Manets Using Multi-Path Routing- Fitness Function <p>The energy consumption plays a key role in Mobile Adhoc Networks in a day to day life. Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) structure is a temporary network organized dynamically with a possible family of wireless mobiles independent of any extra infrastructural facilities and central administration requirements. Also, it provides solutions to overcome the minimal energy consumption issues. Nodes are battery operated temporarily does not operate on permanent batteries, so energy consumed by a battery depends on the lifetime of the battery, and its energy utilization dynamically decreases as the nodes change their position in MANETs. Multi-path routing algorithm in MANETs provides the best optimal; the solution to transmit the information in multiple paths to minimize the end to end delay, increases energy efficiency, and moderately enhances the life time of a network. The research mainly focused on minimum energy consumption techniques in MANET is of a great challenge in industries. In this paper, the author highlights a novel algorithmic approach Adhoc on Demand Multipath Distance Vector (AOMDV) routing protocol that increases the energy efficiency in MANET by incorporating the demand multipath distance and fitness function. The Adhoc on Demand Multipath Distance Vector-Fitness Function (AOMDV-FF) routing protocol short out minimum distance path that consumes minimum energy and the simulation performance is evaluated using network simulator-2 (NS2) tool. Two protocols are proposed in this work AOMDV and AOMDV-FF and compared some of the performance parameters like energy efficiency, network life time and routing overhead in terms of data transfer rate, data packet size and simulation time, etc. The overall simulation results of the proposed AOMDV-FF method is to be considered as a network with 49 nodesand the network performance factor-end to end delay 14.4358msec, energy consumption 18.3673 joules, packet delivery ratio 0.9911 and routing overhead ratio 4.68 are evaluated. The results show an enriched performance as compared to AOMDV and AOMR-LM methods.</p> P Venkateswara Rao, Monika P, Prasanna Kumar Copyright (c) 2019 P Venkateswara Rao, Monika P, Prasanna Kumar Fri, 30 Aug 2019 04:56:53 +0000 Why Estimation Method of Recurrence Time Transition Probabilities with Regard to Genetic Algorithms Without Bit Mutation? <p>Respecting genetic algorithms without bit mutation, our study is to submit unprecedented algorithm to procure tentative and notional results respecting recurrence time transition probabilities estimation for transient states.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Usama Hanafy Abou El-Enien Copyright (c) 2019 Usama Hanafy Abou El-Enien Fri, 30 Aug 2019 04:57:21 +0000 Why Estimation Algorithm of First Passage Time Transition Probabilities Concerns Genetic Algorithms Without Bit Mutation? <p>Concerning genetic algorithm without bit mutation such as absorbing Markov Chain, our aim is proposition modern algorithm to secure experiential and impractical results concerning first passage time transition probabilities estimation with regard to transient states. &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Usama Hanafy Abou El-Enien Copyright (c) 2019 Usama Hanafy Abou El-Enien Fri, 30 Aug 2019 04:57:55 +0000