To Physics Journal 2019-05-01T09:43:06+00:00 Mandeep Kaur Open Journal Systems <div class="bgf5 borrad4 pad15 fontsize16 fonttim">To Physics is a peer-reviewed, open access journal that publishes original research articles and review articles in all areas of physics. The goal of this journal is to provide a platform for scientists and academicians all over the world to promote, share, and discuss various new issues and developments in different areas of physics.</div> Geophysical Contribution of Using 3D View in Landfill Site 2019-04-30T10:37:37+00:00 Iyoha Abraham I. Ikhifa A. Iyoha <p>Geophysical techniques are very useful tools in the characterization of the subsurface to determine the degree of conductivity and predict the nature of earth materials present within the survey area. Three 2D electrical resistivity profiles were established for the purpose of this research. The field survey was carried out using Dipole-dipole array with a spread of 164 m at the only State government approved landfill site in Ikpoba Okhia local government area, Benin City, Edo State. The 3D image maps were at three different depth slices of (5 m, 18 m and 38 m) in order to determine the rate of spread and migration of leachate as we probed deeper into the subsurface. The apparent resistivity values helped in identifying the nature, lateral spread and depth of the conductive sources in the study area. The resistivity data were imported into Voxler software to achieve the objective of the study. The image results from the electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) method revealed highly conductive zones with conductivity of less than 226 Ωm and above to the depth of 38 m. The images show subsurface resistivity distribution at the Eastern part of the study area trending Eastward with prominence at the center and distributed North - East which has been interpreted as loosed or migration zones of leachate. The depth estimate revealed lateral spread of leachate from the surface to maximum depth (38 m) probed which agrees with the borehole lithology of probable materials present within the study area. The study has revealed that the area is generally highly conductive due to the presences of toxic elements while the loosed zones are prospective locations for infiltration of contaminant plums (leachate) from the 3D model view.</p> 2019-04-30T10:37:12+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wormholes in k(R,T) Gravity 2019-05-01T09:43:06+00:00 Farook Rahaman <p>The wormhole solution could be found by solving the Einstein field equations with violating the null energy condition (NEC). We represent wormhole solutions in $\kappa(R,T)$ gravity (Teruel , 2017) in two different ways. At first we find the shape function by considering a redshift function and linear equation of state (EoS). The solution represents a wormhole for the real feasible matter. In second part we consider two pairs of redshift and shape functions and analyze the obtained solutions. Some of the models suggest that for particular values of the parameters, the existence of wormholes are supported by arbitrarily small quantity of exotic matter.</p> 2019-04-30T10:41:17+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Spherical Shock Waves of Variable Energy in A Radiating Atmosphere 2019-04-30T10:58:49+00:00 R K Anand H C Yadav <p>This paper presents power series similarity solutions for spherical shock waves of variable energy propagating in a radiating gas, taking into consideration the Rosseland’s radiative diffusion model. These similarity solutions are obtained for an energy input , where &nbsp;is the energy released up to time <em>t</em> and<strong> &nbsp;</strong>is a functional constant. The effects of radiation-parameter are explored on the pressure, the density, the particle velocity and the heat flux of radiation just behind the spherical shock front. The results provided a clear picture of whether and how the radiation flux affects the distribution of the flow variables in the region behind the spherical shock waves.</p> 2019-04-30T10:58:49+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Decay (Expansion) of the Universe and Stabilized Solar System in a Fundamental Quantum Description 2019-04-30T11:01:41+00:00 Hans-Peter Morsch <p>The expanding (decaying) universe is discussed in the framework of a local quantum field theory, based on a Lagrangian, in which all fermion operators are coupled to bosons. In this formalism the initial phase of the universe has been explained by creation of particles out of the vacuum, accumulation of a system of large mass and immense radius dominated by (e- p+) and (e+ p-) pairs, followed by a chirally triggered collapse and annihilation of all (e+ p-) pairs (antimatter). <br>The subsequent decay of the remaining (e- p+) pairs (matter) shows a velocity, which increases exponentially towards large radii. This gives rise to a good description of velocity-distance data from supernovae 1a observation by adjusting the position of the Solar system to a radius of the universe of about 1300 Mpc. Of importance, at this radius the repulsive and attractive forces compensate each other, giving rise to a boundary condition for a stabilized Solar system. Combined with a calculation of its mass, this yields surprising evidence for the existence of stable cosmic systems, which do not follow the general expansion of the universe. <br>No evidence is found for (not understood) dark energy contributions as deduced from cosmological models.</p> 2019-04-30T11:01:41+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mixing of Ejected Material in Supernova Remnant Cas A 2019-04-30T11:04:05+00:00 Masa-aki Hashimoto <p>Cas A is the well known supernova remnant and detailed observational data have been accumulated. In particular, recent observations suggest that the element distributions for silicon (Si) and iron (Fe) are very peculiar: Fe locates in front of Si. On the other hand, the distribution has not been well studied in connection with supernova remnants. Therefore, we investigate the formation of the remnant of Cas A. Hydrodynamical calculations are performed from the beginning of explosion to the present stage. Before the explosion, models of circumstellar matter are constructed, where the matter is assumed to be ejected from a progenitor.&nbsp;As the supernova simulation of explosion, two dimensional hydrodynamical calculations&nbsp;are performed.&nbsp;It is found that the Rayleigh-Taylor instability is developed from the boundary between hydrogen and helium layers.<br>The instability between Si and Fe layers is not grown enough to induce the observed matter mixing if only the mass loss is included during the red super giant stage. We suggest that an instability at the boundary between Si and Fe layers ascribed to the mass loss during the Wolf-Rayet stage could explain the observations.</p> 2019-04-30T11:04:04+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## High Energy Lasers and New Applications 2019-04-30T11:11:45+00:00 Victor V. Apollonov <p>In the beginning of 1973 in the USSR the study of possibility of LJE designing was conducted. The reflector, located in the tail of the rocket prototype, concentrated the obtained radiation in air and ensured micro-burst that the reactive thrust was created. The successful results of different models of the reflectors tests, which were at the same time the laser light receivers, had been obtained. One should note that all experiments pointed out above were conducted with the use of electric discharge CO<sub>2</sub>- lasers with power up to 10 kW,&nbsp;while for the injection into orbit of different highly and technologically effective equipment (global network connections, Internet, photo-monitoring of Earth surface, debris cleaning) the radiated power substantially higher is required. Thus, for example, for SC launching with the weight&nbsp;1000 kg the laser with power not less than 15 MW is necessary[1,2].</p> 2019-04-30T11:11:44+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## High Energy High Repetition Rate P-P Lasers. 2019-04-30T11:17:04+00:00 Victor V. Apollonov <p>A technique for obtaining of the repetitively pulsed operating regime in high-power wide-aperture lasers is proposed and experimentally realized. In this regime, the laser emits a train of pulses with duration of 100–150 ns and a pulse repetition rate of several tens of kilohertz. The main properties of the pulsed regime are theoretically analyzed and the proposed technique is tested in detail employing a test-bench gas-dynamic laser. The results of the test confirmed the conclusions of the theoretical analysis. The possibility of a repetitively pulsed regime in high-power wide-aperture lasers realization without significant reduction in the average output power is experimentally demonstrated.</p> 2019-04-30T11:17:02+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Characterization of Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Plasma Device 2019-04-30T11:30:42+00:00 Gamal M Elaragi W. E. Madcour Abdel monsef A.El hadary H. M. Abu−zied S. M. Talaat H. S. Elaraby <p>Inetial electrostatic confinment fusion (IECF) device constructed at the Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority (EAEA-IEC), is introduced the characterization of the IEC plasma device. The x-ray and visible light emissions in IEC plasma device were investigated by employing time -resolved detector and measure of the total amount of visible light using lux meter.</p> 2019-04-30T11:30:39+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Study The Structural Properties of Polyaniline:PEDOT Nano Composite. 2019-04-30T11:38:41+00:00 Maan Abd-Alameer Saleh Abdulazeez O.Mousa Mohammed . Hady Shinen <p>In this research we study the structural properties of pure &nbsp;polyaniline films and doped with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) PEDOT. The study included the preparation of films on the rules of the glass and then conducted the tests, infrared , X-ray diffraction and AFM. In this study found that polyaniline was randomly, when you add PEDOT, it cannot happen interaction between them, but be attending together. The results of the tests&nbsp; (<strong>AFM</strong>) of the all films are uniform granular surface morphology. The roughness, root mean sequare and average grain diameter, they were increasing with increased of doped ratio. The method of films preparation&nbsp; are made by spin coating technique.</p> 2019-04-30T11:38:40+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Hall Current Effects on MHD Convective Flow Past a Porous Plate with Thermal Radiation, Chemical Reaction and Heat Generation/Absorption 2019-05-01T04:33:42+00:00 Mopuri Obulesu Prof. R Sivaprasad <p>In this paper an attempt is made to study the chemical reaction and combined buoyancy effects of thermal and mass diffusion on MHD convective flow along an infinite vertical porous plate in the presence of Hall current with variable suction and heat generation. A uniform magnetic field is applied in a direction normal to the porous plate. The equations governing the fluid flow are solved using the perturbation technique and the expressions for the velocity, the temperature and the concentration distributions have been obtained. Dimensionless velocity, temperature and concentration profiles are displayed graphically for different values of the parameters entering into the problem like Prandtl number <em>Pr</em>, Hartmann number <em>M</em>, Grashof number <em>G</em>, modified Grash of number <em>Gc</em>, Hall parameter <em>m</em>, Heat source parameter <em>χ</em>, Schmidt number <em>Sc, </em>and Chemical reaction parameter ξ. The Skin-friction coefficient, rate of heat transfer and mass transfer at the plate have been obtained and also discussed through tables. It has been observed that an increase in the Prandtl number leads to a decrease in the primary and secondary velocities, and also a decrease in the temperature. The primary and secondary velocities decrease with increase in the Chemical reaction parameter or Magnetic field parameter.</p> 2019-04-30T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fractal Analysis of the Lunar Free-air Gravity Field 2019-05-01T04:38:00+00:00 Rosen Georgiev Iliev <p>Recent dedicated lunar gravity mission- Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) provided high-resolution gravity field data for the Moon. The collected data are the starting material for the construction of the latest gravity model GRGM1200A, up to a degree and order 1200° and with sensitivity down to &lt;5 km resolution. This article present the results of the study of the probable fractal structure of the lunar “free-air” gravity field, based on this data. The "free-air" gravity disturbances are the gravity perturbations computed at the reference radius of 1738 km. They show the gravity variations as measured by the spacecraft, and thus include contributions from both the surface topography and any sub-surface bodies. The results would throw a new light on the nature of the geophysical processes and phenomena that take place on the Moon.</p> 2019-04-30T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##