http://purkh.com/index.php/tophy/issue/feed To Physics Journal 2019-10-28T11:36:37+00:00 Gurdev Singh editor@purkh.com Open Journal Systems <div class="bgf5 borrad4 pad15 fontsize16 fonttim">To Physics is a peer-reviewed, open-access journal that publishes original research articles and reviews articles in all areas of physics. The goal of this journal is to provide a platform for scientists and academicians all over the world to promote, share, and discuss various new issues and developments in different areas of physics.</div> http://purkh.com/index.php/tophy/article/view/354 Excitation of 9F Levels of Gadolinium Atom Belonging to 4f75d6s6p Configuration 2019-09-14T11:02:23+00:00 Yuriy Mikhailovich Smirnov 42yuriysmirnov@mail.ru <p>The excitation of <sup>9</sup><em>F</em> levels of gadolinium atoms related to the 4<em>f</em><sup>7</sup>5<em>d</em>6<em>s</em>6<em>p</em> configuration was examined by the method of extended crossing beams with registration of the excited atom radiation. 68 excitation cross sections were measured at the incident electron energy of 30 eV. Optical excitation functions (OEF) in the electron energy range 0-200 eV were recorded for transitions from 13 levels. The direct excitation channel as well as the OEF features are discussed. A comparison with the results of an earlier experiment is given.</p> 2019-08-30T05:28:51+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Yuriy Mikhailovich Smirnov http://purkh.com/index.php/tophy/article/view/379 K-State Solutions To The Dirac Equation For The Quadratic Exponential-Type Potential Plus Eckart Potential And Coulomb-Like Tensor Interaction Using Nikiforov-Uvarov Method 2019-08-31T06:20:25+00:00 Hitler Louis louismuzong@gmail.com Benedict I. Ita iserom2001@yahoo.com Nzeata-Ibe A. Nelson iserom2001@yahoo.com <p>We solve the Dirac equation for the quadratic exponential-type potential plus Eckart potential including a Coulomb-like tensor potential with arbitrary spin–orbit coupling quantum number κ. In the framework of the spin and pseudospin (spin) symmetry, we obtain the energy eigenvalue equation and the corresponding eigenfunctions in closed form by using the Nikiforov–Uvarov method. Also Special cases of the potential are been considered and their energy eigen values, as well as their corresponding eigen functions, are obtained for both relativistic and non-relativistic scope.</p> 2019-08-30T05:29:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Hitler Louis, Benedict I. Ita, Nzeata-Ibe A. Nelson http://purkh.com/index.php/tophy/article/view/392 Ion Acoustic Shock Waves in a Six Component Cometary Plasma 2019-08-31T06:20:32+00:00 Venugopal Chandu cvgmgphys@yahoo.co.in Manesh Michael cvgmgphys@yahoo.co.in Gopika Babu cvgmgphys@yahoo.co.in Celin Mary cvgmgphys@yahoo.co.in G. Sreekala cvgmgphys@yahoo.co.in Sijo Sebastian cvgmgphys@yahoo.co.in <p>The effect of pair ions on the formation and propagation characteristics of Ion-Acoustic (IA) shock waves in a six-component cometary plasma composed of two hot and one colder electron component, hot ions, and heavier pair ions is studied. The colder and one hotter component of electrons together with the lighter hydrogen ions are modelled by kappa distributions. The other hotter electron component is described by a q-nonextensive distribution. The KdVB equation is derived for the system and its solution plotted for different kappa values, oxygen ion densities, kinematic viscosities as well as the temperature ratios of ions. In the aforesaid plasma, the shock wave exhibits a transition towards solitary structure. It is found that the strength of shock profile decreases with an increase in both temperatures of the positively charged oxygen ions and negatively charged oxygen ion densities. However, the strength of the shock wave decreases with a decrease of positively charged oxygen ion densities.</p> 2019-08-30T05:29:07+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Venugopal Chandu, Manesh Michael, Gopika Babu, Celin Mary, G. Sreekala, Sijo Sebastian http://purkh.com/index.php/tophy/article/view/415 Energetics of Compound Formation in Binary Sb-Sn Liquid Alloys 2019-08-31T06:20:50+00:00 Adedayo Mayowa Adedipe dayoforme@yahoo.com Y.A Odusote yaodusote@futa.edu.ng I.C Ndukwe icndukwe2000@yahoo.com C.A Madu cadamadu@yahoo.com <p>Energetic of mixing and symmetry at equiatomic composition in liquid Sb-Sn alloys has been investigated using complex formation model. Assuming the order energy parameters w, l<sub>12</sub>, l<sub>13</sub>, l<sub>23</sub> are temperature dependent, information on Gibbs free energy of mixing at temperature of 905 K and other thermodynamic properties of liquid Sb-Sn alloys was discussed. Gibbs free energy of mixing was modelled using the assumed order energy parameters. Negative deviations from Raoult’s law observed and reported. Our detail examination of the Sb-Sn system suggests that the liquid alloy exhibits compound formation over the whole concentration range, and symmetry in equiatomic composition was observed, though the tendency of the compound formation in the alloy has been found to be weak.&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2019-08-30T05:29:26+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Adedayo Mayowa Adedipe, Y.A Odusote, I.C Ndukwe, C.A Madu http://purkh.com/index.php/tophy/article/view/423 Modelling Photovoltaic Panels (Tandem) In Matlab-Simulink 2019-08-31T06:20:57+00:00 Dennai Benmoussa deennai_benmoussa@yahoo.com A. Talhi deennai_benmoussa@yahoo.com <p>At the stage of development of solar photovoltaic; the direct conversion of energy carried by the solar radiation into electricity, but before consuming, it took to produce using solar panels. Modeling of solar cells is based on their electrical characteristics (relationship voltage / current) under various conditions of radiation and temperature obtained by the equivalent circuit model, we consider associations with cells semiconductors respectful individuals such as: if, AlGaAs, Tandem, we integrate this model with Matlab simulink. The aim of this work is modeled solar panels; Tandem (coupled AlGaAs / Si). This modeling is an essential step to evaluate the characteristics of photovoltaic solar panels.</p> 2019-08-30T05:29:17+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Dennai Benmoussa, A. Talhi http://purkh.com/index.php/tophy/article/view/425 Investigation of the Current-Voltage Characteristics of CdS/CdTe-Based Solar Cells Using Model Calculations 2019-09-03T08:19:31+00:00 Adaeze Erinma Nwogwugwu Adaeze.nwogwugwu@gmail.com Obi Kingsley Echendu oechendu@yahoo.com Bede Chinyere Anusionwu abedec@yahoo.com <p>CdTe can be grown as n-type or p-type although the p-type can also be formed by converting n-CdTe to p-CdTe through the well known CdCl­<sub>2</sub> treatment, which is an important step taken to improve the conversion efficiency of CdTe solar cells. However, the assumption by most researchers is that CdTe is always a p-type material and so can only form a p-n junction with its n-CdS counterpart. This is not always the case as n-n heterojunction + Schottky junction can be formed when an n-CdTe is involved, with group I metals such as Au and Cu as back metal contact. In this work, p-n junction model and Schottky junction model are presented. In order to verify the junction type formed by various CdS/CdTe-based solar cells reported in the literature, current-voltage data of these experimental results are simulated with the junction models using MATLAB programming platform and compared so as to find out the junction model that best describes each experimental result. Diode parameters such as ideality factor, barrier height, and series resistance were adjusted during the simulation. The junction models are found to be in good agreement with some of the experimental results.</p> 2019-08-30T05:29:35+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Adaeze Erinma Nwogwugwu, Obi Kingsley Echendu, Bede Chinyere Anusionwu http://purkh.com/index.php/tophy/article/view/427 Characterization on DECY-13 Cyclotron Components 2019-08-31T06:21:11+00:00 Silakhuddin Silakhuddin silakh@batan.go.id Suharni Suharni suharni@batan.go.id Rian Suryo Darmawan riansd@batan.go.id Idrus Abdul Kudus idrus.ak@batan.go.id <p>The development of Decy-13 Cyclotron at the Center for Accelerator Science and Technology, National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia is nearly to be finalized in construction.&nbsp; This cyclotron is very important to produce radioisotopes used in Positron Emission Tomography Imaging Technique which is growing in Indonesia. In the next few years the cyclotron will be commissioned in getting energy proton beam. However, the characterization of the cyclotron components has not been reviewed.&nbsp; The characterization has been done by investigation and testing of the cyclotron components.&nbsp;&nbsp; The investigation of the central region design was done by simulating the beam path, testing of the ion source was done by measuring ion beam current, testing on magnet was done by mapping magnetic field and testing of roof system was done by measuring power of the rf generator.&nbsp; The results of the beam simulation showed that the initial path of the beam on the right track.&nbsp; Testing result of the ion source showed that the ion beam was more of adequate value.&nbsp; The magnetic field of the magnet was in the near of synchronous pattern.&nbsp; The performance of the rf generator still has to be increased in resulting power.&nbsp; These results provide information that most of cyclotron components that have been constructed, except the rf generator,&nbsp; have right characteristics that are accordance with the requirements.</p> 2019-08-30T05:29:50+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Silakhuddin Silakhuddin, Suharni Suharni, Rian Suryo Darmawan, Idrus Abdul Kudus http://purkh.com/index.php/tophy/article/view/437 New Exact Solutions for Modified Burgers Vortex 2019-08-31T06:21:17+00:00 Dr. Martin Grigor Abrahamyan mabr08@mail.ru <p>Exact solutions of Navier-Stokes equation, presenting a new asymmetric vortex, in framework of modified by Shivamoggi Burgers vortex [8], has been obtained both for steady and for specific unsteady cases. The steady vortex is expressed by the function of parabolic cylinder, unsteady one is expressed by Hermit polynomials.</p> 2019-08-30T05:30:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Dr. Martin Grigor Abrahamyan http://purkh.com/index.php/tophy/article/view/452 Fractal Analysis of The Lunar Bouguer Gravity Field 2019-08-31T06:21:19+00:00 Rosen Iliev ilievrosen88@abv.bg Boyko Ranguelov branguelov@gmail.com Antoaneta Frantzova afrantzova@abv.bg Tzanko Tzankov tzankov1936@abv.bg <p>Recent dedicated lunar gravity measure mission provided high-resolution data for the Moon. The collected data are the starting material for the construction of the latest gravity model.&nbsp; Like all celestial bodies, our natural satellite, is not a perfectly spherical object and its internal structure is not formed of homogeneous layers of equal thickness and gravity field varies from place to place. By measuring variations in lunar gravity can determine the density variations and deduce its internal structure. Gravity anomalies of the Moon are caused by concentrations of huge masses of material known as "mascons". Mascons are a symbol of the periods of creation and destruction in the course of the turbulent geological history of the Moon. This article present the results of the fractal analysis of the lunar Bouguer gravity field. The results obtained in the course of the study confirm the fractal geometry of the lunar Bouguer gravity field. The resulting fractal dimensions (D) varies from 1,4-1,5 to 2,4-2,5 and indicate a high level of gravity values fragmentation. Also, the spatial relationship between Bouguer gravity anomalies, "free-air" gravity anomalies and lunar digital elevation model (DEM) are considered.&nbsp;</p> 2019-08-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Rosen Iliev, Boyko Ranguelov, Antoaneta Frantzova, Tzanko Tzankov http://purkh.com/index.php/tophy/article/view/468 Preparation of Ferromagnetic Co3O4 Nanoparticles by Wet Chemical Synthesis Method 2019-08-31T06:21:26+00:00 Majid Farahmandjou majidfarahmandjou@gmail.com <p>Cobalt oxide nanoparticles (Co<sub>3</sub>O<sub>4</sub>) were synthesized by wet chemical method using cobalt sulfate as precursor and ethylene glycol as surfactant. Their physico-chemical properties were characterized by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and vibration sampling magnetometer (VSM) analyses. The crystal structure of samples after annealing was done by XRD analysis. XRD measurement exhibited the structure of Co<sub>3</sub>O<sub>4</sub> nanocrystals for annealed samples.&nbsp; The TEM results showed the cobalt oxide nanoparticles with good uniformity. The SEM images revealed that the size of nanoparicles increased in the range of 20-50 nm with increasing annealing temperature. The magnetic results indicated a good coercive field and saturation magnetism around 452 G and 18 emu/g, respectively.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> 2019-08-30T05:30:34+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Majid Farahmandjou http://purkh.com/index.php/tophy/article/view/469 PVP-Assisted Synthesis of Fe/Ceo2 Nano-Alloys Prepared by Solgel Method 2019-08-31T06:21:37+00:00 Majid Farahmandjou majidfarahmandjou@gmail.com Mahkameh Dastpak majidfarahmandjou@gmail.com <p>Fe/CeO<sub>2</sub> nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by simple co-precipitation method Iron chloride hexahydrate (FeCl<sub>3</sub>.6H<sub>2</sub>O) and cerium chloride (CeCl<sub>2</sub>·5H<sub>2</sub>O) as precursor in the presence of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) surfactant and ethylene glycol agent. The samples were characterized by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electron dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) in different temperature. The XRD results showed that Fe-doped CeO<sub>2</sub> was single-phased with a cubic structure. The particle size of as-prepared sample was in the range size of 15-45 nm and annealed sample was around 22 nm in diameter at 800<sup>o</sup>C for 3 hours. The TEM studies showed the 17 nm squared-like shaped nanosized particles. EDS shows peaks of iron and cerium with less impurity in prepared samples and Fe/Ce ratio was also decreased with increasing annealing temperature.</p> <p>Fe/CeO<sub>2</sub> nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by simple co-precipitation method Iron chloride hexahydrate (FeCl<sub>3</sub>.6H<sub>2</sub>O) and cerium chloride (CeCl<sub>2</sub>·5H<sub>2</sub>O) as precursor in the presence of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) surfactant and ethylene glycol agent. The samples were characterized by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electron dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) in different temperature. The XRD results showed that Fe-doped CeO<sub>2</sub> was single-phased with a cubic structure. The particle size of as-prepared sample was in the range size of 15-45 nm and annealed sample was around 22 nm in diameter at 800<sup>o</sup>C for 3 hours. The TEM studies showed the 17 nm squared-like shaped nanosized particles. EDS shows peaks of iron and cerium with less impurity in prepared samples and Fe/Ce ratio was also decreased with increasing annealing temperature.</p> <p>Fe/CeO<sub>2</sub> nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by simple co-precipitation method Iron chloride hexahydrate (FeCl<sub>3</sub>.6H<sub>2</sub>O) and cerium chloride (CeCl<sub>2</sub>·5H<sub>2</sub>O) as precursor in the presence of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) surfactant and ethylene glycol agent. The samples were characterized by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electron dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) in different temperature. The XRD results showed that Fe-doped CeO<sub>2</sub> was single-phased with a cubic structure. The particle size of as-prepared sample was in the range size of 15-45 nm and annealed sample was around 22 nm in diameter at 800<sup>o</sup>C for 3 hours. The TEM studies showed the 17 nm squared-like shaped nanosized particles. EDS shows peaks of iron and cerium with less impurity in prepared samples and Fe/Ce ratio was also decreased with increasing annealing temperature.</p> <p>Fe/CeO<sub>2</sub> nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by simple co-precipitation method Iron chloride hexahydrate (FeCl<sub>3</sub>.6H<sub>2</sub>O) and cerium chloride (CeCl<sub>2</sub>·5H<sub>2</sub>O) as precursor in the presence of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) surfactant and ethylene glycol agent. The samples were characterized by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electron dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) in different temperature. The XRD results showed that Fe-doped CeO<sub>2</sub> was single-phased with a cubic structure. The particle size of as-prepared sample was in the range size of 15-45 nm and annealed sample was around 22 nm in diameter at 800<sup>o</sup>C for 3 hours. The TEM studies showed the 17 nm squared-like shaped nanosized particles. EDS shows peaks of iron and cerium with less impurity in prepared samples and Fe/Ce ratio was also decreased with increasing annealing temperature.</p> <p>Fe/CeO<sub>2</sub> nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by simple co-precipitation method Iron chloride hexahydrate (FeCl<sub>3</sub>.6H<sub>2</sub>O) and cerium chloride (CeCl<sub>2</sub>·5H<sub>2</sub>O) as precursor in the presence of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) surfactant and ethylene glycol agent. The samples were characterized by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electron dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) in different temperature. The XRD results showed that Fe-doped CeO<sub>2</sub> was single-phased with a cubic structure. The particle size of as-prepared sample was in the range size of 15-45 nm and annealed sample was around 22 nm in diameter at 800<sup>o</sup>C for 3 hours. The TEM studies showed the 17 nm squared-like shaped nanosized particles. EDS shows peaks of iron and cerium with less impurity in prepared samples and Fe/Ce ratio was also decreased with increasing annealing temperature.</p> 2019-08-30T05:30:40+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Majid Farahmandjou, Mahkameh Dastpak http://purkh.com/index.php/tophy/article/view/475 Anisotropy and Isotropy Degrees of Mgo And Mgsio_4 At Different Temperatures 2019-09-14T11:04:59+00:00 Faeq A. A. Radwan frdwnk@gmail.com <p>The norm of elastic constant tensor and the norms of the irreducible parts of the elastic constants of and &nbsp;<em>at</em> <em>different temperatures at</em> <em>different temperatures along with the experimental data obtained under adiabatic condition</em>. The relation of the scalar parts norms and the other parts norms and the anisotropy of these materials is presented. The norm ratios are used as a criterion to present the anisotropy degree of the properties of these.&nbsp;</p> 2019-08-30T05:30:59+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Faeq A. A. Radwan http://purkh.com/index.php/tophy/article/view/451 Does the Standard Model of Particle Physics Suffer from a Mass Problem? 2019-10-28T11:36:33+00:00 Hans-Peter Morsch h.p.morsch@gmx.de <p>In the Standard Model of particle physics massive fermions (quarks and leptons) and bosons (W^+-, Z^o, H^o) are needed. However, the logic of nature requires that the universe emerged out of the vacuum and therefore all elementary particles should be massless. To test, whether this requirement is consistent with the mass structure of the Standard Model, corresponding mesonic states as well as the systems Z^o(91.2~GeV), W^+-(80.4~GeV) and 0^+(126~GeV) have been investigated in a unified theory of all forces including gravity, in which all needed parameters are constrained by basic boundary conditions.</p> <p>The results show indeed that for these states all basic boundary conditions are fulfilled. Thus, the quarks and massive bosons of the Standard Model should be interpreted as effective particles composed of massless elementary fermions and bosons, in full agreement with the structure of the universe.</p> 2019-08-30T05:30:09+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Hans-Peter Morsch http://purkh.com/index.php/tophy/article/view/456 Non-Interacting Spin Systems Described by Probabilistic Soft Sets 2019-09-14T10:58:21+00:00 Amir Pishkoo apishkoo@gmail.com Yosra Sharifi yosra_sharifi@yahoo.com Ali Khotanloo a.khotanloo@malayeru.ac.ir <p>In this paper we study the system of non-interacting spins like electrons by using notions probability, soft sets and probabilistic soft sets. Electrons are indistinguishable identical particles whose spin is one of their features like mass of electron, charge of electron etc. We also compare two systems of non-interacting spins by defining two soft spin sets and calculating their similarity measure.</p> 2019-08-30T05:30:27+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Amir Pishkoo, Yosra Sharifi, Ali Khotanloo http://purkh.com/index.php/tophy/article/view/428 Mass of the Universe from a Fundamental Quantum Description 2019-10-28T11:36:37+00:00 Hans-Peter Morsch h.p.morsch@gmx.de <p>Within a fundamental quantum theory, in which gravitation is described by magnetic binding of hadron-lepton pairs, the mechanisms responsible to the development of the universe are well understood. The Solar system has been found to be a stable bound state with a present distance from the center of the universe of about 1200 Mpc. Using this result, the radius of the universe, which comprises essentially all matter, is estimated to be about 1800 Mpc. The total mass is given by the accumulated mass, before the early gravitational system became destabilized by CP-violating processes. Consistent with the known energy-density of the universe a mass of about 4 10^{78} GeV/c^2 (sim 4 10^{21} Solar masses) is obtained.</p> <p><br>Further, from the present temperature of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) of 2.73 K an annihilation radius in the order of 1 mm is obtained (for absorption of a fraction of 10^{-4} and 10^{-5} of the total annihilation energy).</p> 2019-08-30T05:29:42+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Hans-Peter Morsch http://purkh.com/index.php/tophy/article/view/472 Thermal and exergy analysis of the use of the lens in parabolic trough. 2019-08-31T06:22:27+00:00 mya jamalabadi muhammad_yaghoob@yahoo.com Pezhman Ghareghani muhammad_yaghoob@yahoo.co Sadegh Alikhani muhammad_yaghoob@yahoo.co Iman Khatami muhammad_yaghoob@yahoo.co <p>The aim of current study, is looking for a new way to increase the efficiency of the solar collector parabolic trough analytical and experimentally. To do a collector through is produced and equiped with 23 lenses located above the absorber tube in a row. The use of the lens increase the efficiency of Parabolic trough collector up to 14 percent. The system analysed theorically and evaluates by first and second law of thermodynamics. For the estimation of solar radiation the two methods of maximum probability and Prescott's angstrom methods is used, and compared with the data of the pyrometer device (radiation gauge). By the statistical criteria, the Angstrom method is more accurate compared to the maximum probability. Various components of heat transfer is analyzed through the system evolution versus time. The results show that the maximum exergy efficiency of the system was about 52 percent. As well the use of lens enhance the exergy efficiency of the system.</p> 2019-08-30T05:30:48+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 mya jamalabadi, Pezhman Ghareghani, Sadegh Alikhani, Iman Khatami http://purkh.com/index.php/tophy/article/view/476 Augmented Reality and Virtual Reality Web Environment to Visualizing the Planets of The Solar System 2019-09-10T07:14:43+00:00 Paulo Henrique Siqueira paulohs@ufpr.br <p>This paper shows the development of a webpage environment created to visualizations of the Solar System planets with Augmented Reality and Virtual Reality. With the objective to show the Solar System closer to reality, the measurements used in this paper involve distances between the planets and the Sun, limits of minimum (perihelion) and maximum distances (aphelion), rotations, inclinations and eccentricities of the elliptical orbits. To improve the orbits visualization, distances, diameters and rotations metrics were adapted with proportional circles areas and geometrical mean, smoothing the differences of magnitudes. The developed environment can be used in the classroom to visualize the Solar System in Augmented Reality, with the possibility of manipulations of the planets representations by the students with the environment created in Virtual Reality, besides studies of the laws of Kepler and properties of inclinations and rotations of the planets. This work serves as a way to encourage teachers to develop materials with the technology shown in order to propagate and popularize the use of Augmented Reality and Virtual Reality in classroom programmed as in a web environment.</p> 2019-08-30T08:28:21+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Paulo Henrique Siqueira http://purkh.com/index.php/tophy/article/view/489 The Klein–Gordon Equation with Modified Coulomb Potential Plus Inverse-Square–Root Potential in Three-Dimensional Noncommutative Space 2019-08-31T06:22:39+00:00 Abdelmadjid Maireche abmaireche@gmail.com <p>In present work, the three-dimensional modified Klein-Gordon equation (MKGE) is analytically solved under modified Coulomb potential plus inverse-square–root potential, in the symmetries of noncommutative quantum mechanics (NCQM), using the generalized Bopp’s shift method. The new energy shift (ground state, first excited state and excited state) is obtained via first order perturbation theory in the 3-dimensional noncommutative real space (NC: 3D-RS) symmetries instead of solving MKGE with the Weyl Moyal star product. It is found that the perturbative solutions of discrete spectrum for studied potential depended on the parabolic cylinder functions, the Gamma function, the discreet atomic quantum numbers &nbsp;and the potential parameters (and), in addition to noncommutativity parameters (and).</p> 2019-08-30T08:58:12+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Abdelmadjid Maireche http://purkh.com/index.php/tophy/article/view/500 A New Model for Describing Heavy-Light Mesons in The Extended Nonrelativistic Quark Model Under a New Modified Potential Containing Cornell, Gaussian And Inverse Square Terms in The Symmetries Of NCQM 2019-08-31T06:22:45+00:00 Abdelmadjid Maireche abmaireche@gmail.com <p>In present work, the modified Schrödinger equation (MSE) is analytically solved for the Heavy-Light Mesons (HLM) under modified quark-antiquark potential containing modified Cornell, Gaussian and inverse square terms <em>MCGISTs</em>, in the symmetries of 3-dimensional noncommutative real space phase (NC: 3D-RSP), using the generalized Bopp’s shift method. The energy a spectrum of HLM has been investigated in the framework of extended nonrelativistic quark model ENRQM. Furthermore, the new energy eigenvalues and the corresponding Hamiltonian operator are calculated in (NC: 3D-RSP) symmetries. The masses of the scalar, vector, pseudoscalar, and pseudovector for (,, &nbsp;and ) mesons have been calculated in (NC: 3D-RSP) and we have shown that the spin-orbital coupling &nbsp;generated automatically. Moreover, using the perturbation approach, we found that the perturbative solutions of discrete spectrum can be expressed by the parabolic cylinder functions function, Gamma function, the discreet atomic quantum numbers &nbsp;of the &nbsp;state and (the spin independent and spin dependent) parameters (), in addition to noncommutativity parameters (and). As a special case this model has been applied to study the S- and P-wave states of,, &nbsp;and mesons&nbsp; in NCQM symmetries The total complete degeneracy of new energy levels of HLM was changed to become equals the new value&nbsp;instead &nbsp;in ordinary quantum mechanics. Our obtained results are in good agreement with the already existing literatures in NCQM.&nbsp;</p> 2019-08-30T09:21:22+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Abdelmadjid Maireche http://purkh.com/index.php/tophy/article/view/508 The Growth and Characterization of Zinc Silver Sulphide Thin Films Prepared by Chemical Bath Deposition Technique 2019-08-31T06:22:51+00:00 ANTHONY IBEH ibehthony@yahoo.com Dominic David Odo Eya eyadom2003@yahoo.com C.Iroegbu, Ph.D3 eyadom2003@yahoo.com <p>Zinc Silver Sulphide thin films have been successfully prepared by the chemical bath deposition technique. The reaction bath consists of solutions of Zn(COOH)<sub>2</sub>, AgNO<sub>3</sub>, CH<sub>3</sub>CH<sub>2</sub>NS, TEA and NH<sub>3</sub> in 50ml beakers. The films are shiny dark brown in colour and are strongly adhered to the substrates and retain their properties for a long period of time. The films have high absorbance at the UV region and can be used as UV filters. The thin film annealed at 373K has the highest absorbance of 2.7% at the UV region. The thin films have low transmittance in the UV region due to the high absorbance. The film sample annealed at 423K has the highest transmittance in the visible region (about 80%). These properties make the films suitable for solar window control applications. The XRD studies show that the films are crystalline in nature and the range of the grain size obtained is from 0.752nm to 1.145nm. The band gap obtained is in the range of 1.9eV to 2.45eV which gives it potential application in solar cell fabrication.&nbsp;</p> 2019-08-30T10:09:16+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 ANTHONY IBEH; Dominic David Odo Eya; C.Iroegbu, Ph.D3 http://purkh.com/index.php/tophy/article/view/510 Characterization of Nanocrystallite CdAl2SO3 Thin Films Produced by Inexpensive Chemical Bath Techniques for Photonic Device Applications: The Influence of Annealing Temperature 2019-09-03T07:10:24+00:00 James Ezihe jamesezihe05@gmail.com D. D. O. Eya jamesezihe05@gmail.com C. Iroegbu jamesezihe05@gmail.com O. K. Echendu *jamesezihe05@gmail.com K. O. Egbo *jamesezihe05@gmail.com <p>Quaternary nanocrystallite (CdAl<sub>2</sub>SO<sub>3</sub>) thin films have been synthesized by the method of chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique using a reaction bath containing cadmium chloride, thiourea, and Aluminium sulphate octadecahydrate at room temperature. The thin films are white in colour and strongly adherent to the substrate. The materials were annealed at various temperatures of 150 °C, 200 °C and 250 °C before characterizing. The XRD results showed that the <em>CdAl<sub>2</sub>SO<sub>3</sub></em> thin films crystallize as binary-phase compounds of <em>CdSO<sub>3</sub></em> and <em>Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub></em>. The material has good absorbance at room temperature compared to annealed temperature. Annealing has little or no effect on the transmittance of the film material. The absorption coefficient increases with annealing temperature. The reflectance decreases with annealing temperature. The direct bandgap of the <em>CdAl<sub>2</sub>SO<sub>3</sub></em> thin films ranges from 3.70eV to 3.9eV. The thickness of the films ranges from 207 nm to 879 nm. The SEM micrographs reveal homogenous and densely packed grains with unequal sizes and shapes. The high absorption in the UV-Vis regions makes the material suitable for thin films absorber solar cells. The direct bandgap of the thin films makes them applicable in optical devices such as LEDs and semiconductor lasers</p> 2019-08-30T10:09:55+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 James Ezihe, D. D. O. Eya, C. Iroegbu, O. K. Echendu, K. O. Egbo