To Physics Journal 2018-08-30T07:58:54+00:00 Dr. P. Lakshmi Praveen Open Journal Systems <div class="bgf5 borrad4 pad15 fontsize16 fonttim">To Physics is a peer-reviewed, open access journal that publishes original research articles and review articles in all areas of physics. The goal of this journal is to provide a platform for scientists and academicians all over the world to promote, share, and discuss various new issues and developments in different areas of physics.</div> Annual Reviewer Acknowledgement 2018-08-30T07:58:34+00:00 Chief Editor <p>The Editorial team of the would like to thank the following reviewers for their work in refereeing manuscripts during 2018.</p> 2018-08-29T10:53:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Application of Navier-Stokes Equation in the Determination of the Velocity Profile of Constitutive Carrier Wave in a Visco-Elastic Blood Circulating System of HIV/AIDS Infected Person 2018-08-30T07:58:50+00:00 Erhietovwe Akpata <p>The general understanding of the literature of clinical diseases is that the HIV attacks and feeds on the active cells that make up the human immune system. However, this process is associated with the gradual depletion and weakening of the active cells thereby resulting in a breakdown in the biological performance of the human system. This is a very correct statement but not a unique understanding. There is also a cause (vibration) that gives the HIV its own intrinsic characteristics, activity and existence. It is not the Human system that gives the HIV its life and existence, since the HIV itself is an active living organism and with its own peculiar wave characteristics even before it enters the system of Man. It is the vibration of an unknown force that causes life and existence. Therefore, for any active matter to exist it must possess vibration and vibration produces wave. The human heart stands as a transducer of this vibration. Fortunately, the blood stands as a means of conveying this vibration to all units of the human system. In this work, therefore, we primarily seek to determine the vibratory wave characteristics that are peculiar to both Man and the HIV. The spectrum of the velocity profile conveyed by the constituted carrier wave is characterised by the predominance of the radial velocity and with minimal contribution from the angular velocity. The characteristic spectrum of the velocities shows that within 21 hours after infection with HIV, the biological system of Man must imaginarily recognize and react to the interference of a strange velocity-like body whose influence may be destructive or constructive as the case may be. However, the recuperative inbuilt factor in the human system initially tends to annul this effect and renormalizes the frequency of vibration until it finally goes to zero after a specified time. It is also shown in this work that the radial and the angular velocity are oppositely related.</p> 2018-08-29T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Monte Carlo Based Dose Assessment for 90Y Radioembolization, A Comparison between 99mtc-MAA SPECT/CT and 90Y-Microspheres PET 2018-08-30T07:58:32+00:00 Sjoerd Rijnsdorp Daniela Oprea-Lager Jan de-Vries Arthur van-Lingen <p>The aim of this research was to assess the agreement between the distribution of technetium-99m macroaggregated albumin (MAA) and yttrium-90 microspheres in radioembolization of the liver, as well as the correspondence between the desired radiation dose and the true radiation dose in the target area.</p> 2018-08-29T08:27:57+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Some Physical Properties of Cubic System Miscellaneous Compounds 2018-08-30T07:58:43+00:00 Faeq A. A. Radwan <p>The norm of elastic constant tensor and the norms of the irreducible parts of the elastic constants of different types of cubic system miscellaneous compounds are calculated. The relation of the scalar parts norm and the other parts norms and the anisotropy of these compounds are characterized. The norm ratios are used to study anisotropy of these compounds.</p> 2018-08-29T09:27:59+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## On the Sunspot Group Number Reconstruction: The Backbone Method Revisited 2018-08-30T07:58:38+00:00 Leif Svalgaard <p>We discuss recent papers very critical of the Group Sunspot Number Series (Svalgaard &amp; Schatten [2016]). Unfortunately, we cannot support any of the concerns they raise. We first show that almost always there is simple proportionality between the group counts by different observers and that taking the small, occasional, non-linearities into account makes very little difference. Among other examples: we verify that the RGO group count was drifting the first twenty years of observations. We then show that our group count matches the diurnal variation of the geomagnetic field with high fidelity, and that the heliospheric magnetic field derived from geomagnetic data is consistent with our group number series. We evaluate the ‘correction matrix’ approach [Usoskin et al. 2016] and show that it fails to reproduce the observational data. We clarify the notion of daisy-chaining and point out that our group number series has no daisy-chaining for the period 1794-1996 and therefore no accumulation of errors over that span. We compare with the cosmic ray record for the last 400+ years and find good agreement. We note that the Active Day Fraction method (of Usoskin et al.) has the fundamental problem that at sunspot maximum, every day is an ‘active day’ so ADF is nearly always unity and thus does not carry information about the statistics of high solar activity. This ‘information shadow’ occurs for even moderate group numbers and thus need to be extrapolated to higher activity. The ADF method also fails for ‘equivalent observers’ who should register the same group counts, but do not. We conclude that the criticism of Svalgaard &amp; Schatten [2016] is invalid and detrimental to progress in the important field of long-term variation of solar activity.</p> 2018-08-29T09:19:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Lagrangean Hydrodynamic Representation of Dirac Equation 2018-08-30T07:58:44+00:00 Piero Chiarelli <p>This work derives the Lagrangean hydrodynamic representation of the Dirac field that, by using the minimum action principle in the non-Euclidean generalization, can possibly lead to the formulation of the Einstein equation as a function of the fermion field.</p> 2018-08-29T09:43:38+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Can the Mystery of the Speed of Light be Unveiled by Kinetic Waves? 2018-08-30T07:58:35+00:00 Luciano M. R. Rota <p>An in-depth analysis of the dynamics connected to the Doppler-effect brings clear light to elements of contradiction with the original ground on which the axiom of the constancy of lightspeed was based.</p> <p>Thereby, with regard to electromagnetic phenomenology, the duality waves/particles and the wavy dynamic of light-propagation suggest the existence of a natural kind of waves, which differently from the classic ones, are originating by kinetic thrust and propagating, also though vacuum, by inertial force. The model taken into consideration, to which has been given the name of “<em>kinetic waves”</em> is, like the classic one, a concretely existing natural phenomenon which can also be visually perceived if produced on molecular scale. Moreover, <em>kinetic waves</em> seem to offer many more points of similarity, in dynamic and behavior, with the electromagnetic waves, than the classic model.</p> <p>Applying the obtained results to astrophysical field, taking as example the quasar 3C-273, the recently found, most far galaxy GN-z11 and the galaxy NGC 224 (better known as Andromeda), can mathematically and concretely be sustained that none of the energy sources we optically perceive, showing a Doppler-shift, is regressing nor approaching.</p> <p>In the appendix, a suggested and accurately described experiment on base of Radar Astronomy to possibly confirm the validity of the model presented by this article.</p> 2018-08-29T08:37:52+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Quantum Mechanics and General Relativity: Creation Creativity 2018-08-30T07:58:46+00:00 Youssef Al Youssef Rama Khoulandi <p>This article is concerned with a new concept of quantum mechanics theory depending upon the two components: matter and anti-matter. The article also links quantum mechanics and general relativity. Linking the two theories has been a long-pursed attempt by many scientists. The article gives the reader the chance to understand the microscopic and macroscopic worlds by the two theories linked by one equation.</p> <p>Quantum mechanics and general relativity are the eye of science by which we look at the universe. Quantum mechanics is concerned with microscopic level and general relativity is concerned with macroscopic level. Many scientists have attempted to link the two theories but in vain. The following papers describe the way in which one can have a scientific explanation of the universe with one theory called the Creation Theory.</p> 2018-08-29T09:55:33+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##