The Morphological Classification and Protection of The Central Coastline: Implications for Coastal Erosion Management in Ghana
The study sought to classify the coastline between Cape Coast and Sekondi and to evaluate the measures put in place to manage and control sea erosion. It involved field observation and community interactions. Satellite and photographic images were used to present the data with the help of Geographic Information System (GIS). It was observed that the central coastline is made of alternating sandy and rocky characteristics. The rocks around Cape Coast were mainly metamorphosed schist, originating from igneous and metamorphic outcrops. Those from Komenda to Sekondi were mostly Sekondi sandstone. In all, it can be said that about 40-45% of the coastline under study that is, between Ekon and Sekondi, is rocky and mainly made up of granite and sandstone. It was also revealed that both hard and soft structures have been used as sea defense mechanisms to manage and protect the shoreline. There is both governmental and community initiatives to ameliorate the dangers of coastal erosion. The paper therefore recommends that human activities that aggravate the natural causes of sea erosion should be stopped. Moreover, any attempt to control sea erosion should be done based on the nature of the coastline and also with the involvement of the local communities to ensure commitment and community ownership.
Adu-Boahen, K. (2016). Changing dynamics of coastal lagoons: A case study of the Fosu and the Essei lagoons in Ghana. Unpublished PhD Thesis submitted to the Department of Geography and Regional Planning, University of Cape Coast, Ghana, for an award of Doctor of Philosophy in Geography and Regional Planning.
Aheto, D.W., Okyere, I., Mensah, E., Mensah, J., Aheto, S. P. K, &Agyarkwa, E.O. (2010). Rapid biodiversity assessment on the Essei and Butuah lagoons and the Whin River estuary in the Sekondi-Takoradi Metropolis of the Western Region of Ghana. Friends of the Nation in Partnership with the Integrated Coastal and Fisheries Governance (ICFG) Initiative in Ghana. Technical Report. Pp. 130.
Asare-Boadu, K. (2014). Ada Sea Defense Project on course. Accra: Graphic Communications Group. (Retrieved 15/08/2014) from http://graphic.com.gh/news/general-news/20901-ada-sea-defence-project.
Baird Inc. (2011). Keta coastal defense. Great Lakes Dredge & Dock Company http://www.baird.com/what-we-do/project/keta.coastal-defence-project.retrieved 15/08/14)
Baldwin, A. H., Mckee, K. L., & Mendelssohn I. A. (1996). The influence of vegetation, salinity and inundation on seed banks of oligohaline coastal marshes. American Journal of Botany, 83 (4), 470-479
Bartrum, J. A. (1935). Metamorphic rogks and albite-rich igneous rocks from Jurassic conglomerates at Kawhia. Tran. roy. Soc. No. Z., 65: 95-107.
Bartrum, J. A. (1926). Abnormal shore platforms. J. Geol, 34, 793-806.
Bartrum, J. A. (1924). The shore platform of the West Coast near Auckland: its storm wave origin. Rept. Aust. Assoc. Adv. Sci,. 16, 493-5.
Bartrum, J. A. & Turner F.J. (1928). Determining the directions of flow in basalts. American Journal of Science, Bradley Volume, Vol, 258-A, 1960. P.350-366.
Bates, L. R. & Jackson A. J. (1984). Beach. In, Dictionary of Geological Terms. (3rd ed.). New York: Anchor Press.
Beathey, T; & Brower, D. J. (2002). An introduction to Coastal Zone Management. Island Press.
Boateng, I. (2009). Sediments budget analysis and integrated shoreline management planning: An application to Ghana’s coast. (unpublished Doctoral thesis). Portsmouth.
Bird, E. C. F. (1993). Submerging coasts; the effects of a rising sea level on coastal environments. Chichester, U. K.: John Willey.
Bird, E. C. F.. & Schwartz M. L. (Eds.). (1985). The World’s Coastline. New York: Von Nostrand Reinhold Company, vii
Briney, A. (n.d.). Geography of estuaries. (retrieved 28/07/2014) from http://geography.about.com/od/obtainpopulationdata/a/Geography-Of-Estuaries.htm
Bruun, P. E. R. (1962). Sea-level rise as a cause of shore erosion.Journal of the Waterways and Harbours, 88,117-130.
Clark, J. (1995). Coastal zone management hand book. Boca Raton, USA: Lewis Publishers.
Dadson, I. Y. (2016, 2008). Understanding climatology. Cape Coast: University of Cape Coast Press
Dadson I. Y. (Unpublished) Dynamics of coastal erosion and landmass change along Cape Coast – Sekondi coastline in Ghana. Unpublished Ph.D Thesis.
Darfah-Frimpong, E. (2013). Phase 2 of Ada sea defense wall to be completed 2014.Accra: Graphic Communications Group. http://graphic.com.gh/busness/business-news/14536-phase-2-ada- sea-defense-project. (retrieved, 10/08/2014).
Ekow F. J. & Adu-Boahen, K., (2016). Coastal environmental injustice in Ghana: the activities of coastal sediment miners in the Elmina, Cape Coast and Moree area. GeoJournal, 79(6), Springer. DOI 10.1007/s10708-014-9612-4. ISSN 0343-2521.
Hayes M. O. (1979). Barrier Island morphology as function tidal wave regime
Dei, L. A. (1975). Morphology of the rocky shoreline of Ghana. Bulletin of the Ghana Geographical Association. Vol. 17 pp. 1-30.
Douglass, S. L. & Pickel, B. H. (1999). The tide doesn’t go out anymore-the effect of bulkheads on urban bay shorelines. Shore and Beach 67 (2&3: 19-25.
Great Lakes Dredge and Dock Company, (2007). Keta coastal defense. Baird Inc.
Johnson, D. W. (1919). Shore processes and shoreline development. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Ministry of Water Resources, Works and Housing (2010) The sea is eating Keta. Accra: Daily Guide
Nordstrom, K. F. (1971)Tectonic classification of coast. Cambridge University Press.
Oteng-Ababio, M., Owusu K, & Appeaning, A. (2011). The vulnerable state of the Ghana coast: the case of Faana-Bortianor. Jamba: Journal of Disaster Risk Studies. Vol.3, no. 2.
Slott, J. M., Smith, M. D. and Murray, A. B. 2008. Synergies between adjacent beach-nourishing communities in a morpho-economic coupled coastline model. Coastal Management, 36: 374–391 Tailor & Francis Online
USGS, (2004). Historical shoreline changes and associated coastal land loss along the US Gulf of Mexico. National Assessment of Shoreline Change Part 1. USGS Open File Report 2004-1043
Waugh, D. (1995). Geography: An integrated approach. UK: Thomas Nelson and Sons Ltd.
Copyright (c) 2018 SOCIALSCI JOURNAL
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors retain the copyright of their manuscripts, and all Open Access articles are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided that the original work is properly cited.
SOCIALSCI JOURNAL allow the author(s) to retain publishing rights without restrictions.
This Journal is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.