Analysis of Trace and Essential Elements, Phenolic and Flavonoid Compounds in Libyan Honey Samples Collected from Misurata Markets

  • Mohamed Elbagerma Misurata University
  • Howell Edwards University of Bradford
  • Jamal Mayouf University of Misurata
  • Tahani Twaish Misurata University
Keywords: Libyan Honey, Heavy Metal, Flavonoid Compounds, Phenolic Compounds, Misurata


Honey is a popular natural food product with a very complex composition comprising both organic and inorganic constituents. The composition of particular honey is strongly influenced by both natural and anthropogenic factors, which vary based on its botanical and geographical origins. It is observed that although the honey which are produced in Libya are of a good quality, it does contain heavy metals. The contents of the metals found in Libyan honey samples were found to be between 465.1-792 mg/kg for Na, 1100.8-1781.6 mg/kg for K, 927.79-1186.6 mg/km for Ca, 0.0033- 0.0177 mg/kg for Cd, 0.0029- 0.0241mg/kg for Pb, 0.0012- 0.0042mg/kg for Cr, 0.004-0.032 mg/kg for Cu, 0.72-1.37 mg/kg for Ni and 3.677-7.430 mg/kg for Zn. These results indicated that the quality of the Libyan honey samples tested was very good and matched the world standard properties of honey. Also, the Libyan honey samples examined have a high level of phenolic (792- 99 mg/kg ) and flavonoid (1012-687mg/kg) compounds compared with other honey


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Author Biographies

Mohamed Elbagerma, Misurata University

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Misurata, Misurata, Libya

Howell Edwards, University of Bradford

Raman Spectroscopy Group, University Analytical Centre, Division of Chemical and Forensic Sciences,
University of Bradford, West Yorkshire, UK

Jamal Mayouf, University of Misurata

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Misurata, Misurata, Libya

Tahani Twaish, Misurata University

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Misurata, Misurata, Libya


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How to Cite
Elbagerma, M., Edwards, H., Mayouf, J., & Twaish, T. (2019). Analysis of Trace and Essential Elements, Phenolic and Flavonoid Compounds in Libyan Honey Samples Collected from Misurata Markets. To Chemistry Journal, 4, 37-46. Retrieved from
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