Analysis of Trace and Essential Elements, Phenolic and Flavonoid Compounds in Libyan Honey Samples Collected from Misurata Markets
Honey is a popular natural food product with a very complex composition comprising both organic and inorganic constituents. The composition of particular honey is strongly inﬂuenced by both natural and anthropogenic factors, which vary based on its botanical and geographical origins. It is observed that although the honey which are produced in Libya are of a good quality, it does contain heavy metals. The contents of the metals found in Libyan honey samples were found to be between 465.1-792 mg/kg for Na, 1100.8-1781.6 mg/kg for K, 927.79-1186.6 mg/km for Ca, 0.0033- 0.0177 mg/kg for Cd, 0.0029- 0.0241mg/kg for Pb, 0.0012- 0.0042mg/kg for Cr, 0.004-0.032 mg/kg for Cu, 0.72-1.37 mg/kg for Ni and 3.677-7.430 mg/kg for Zn. These results indicated that the quality of the Libyan honey samples tested was very good and matched the world standard properties of honey. Also, the Libyan honey samples examined have a high level of phenolic (792- 99 mg/kg ) and flavonoid (1012-687mg/kg) compounds compared with other honey
Vanhanen LP, Emmertz A, Savage GP., Mineral analysis of mono-ﬂoral New Zealand honey. Food Chem., 128 (2011) 236–40.
Bogdanov S, Haldimann M, Luginbuhl W, Gallmann P., Minerals in honey: environmental, geographical and botanical aspects. J Apic. Res., 46 (2007)269–75.
Hoopingarner RA, Waller GD. (Crop pollination, in J.D. Graham (Ed.)., The Hive and the Honey Bee Dadant Sons, Hamilton, IL, (1993) 1043–1082.
Ioannidou MD, Zachariadis GA, Anthemidis AN, Stratis JA., Direct determination of toxic trace metals in honey and sugars using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. Talanta, 65 (1), (2004) 92–97.
Hernandez O, Fraga J, Jimenez A, Jimenez F, Arias J. Characterization of honey from the Canary Islands: determination of the mineral content by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Food Chem., 93 (2005) 449–58.
Pohl P., Determination of metal content in honey by atomic absorption and emission spectrometries. TRAC, 28 (2009) 117–28.
Tuzen M., Soylak M., Trace heavy metal levels in microwave digested honey samples from Middle Anatolia, Turkey. J Food Drug Anal., 13(4), (2005) 343-347.
Duthie G, Dutie S.J., Kyle J.A.M., Plant polyphenols in cancer and heart disease: implications as nutritional antioxidants. Nutr. Res. Rev., 13 (2000)79–106.
Bravo L., Polyphenols: chemistry, dietary sources, metabolis, and nutritional significance. Nutr. Rev., 56(11) (1998) 317–333.
Gheldof N., Wang X., Engeseth N., Identification and quantification of antioxidant components of honey from various floral sources. J. Agric. Food Chem., 50(21) (2002) 5870–5877.
Steeg E., Montag A., Minor ingredients of honey with flavour relevance. II. Sensorially active decomposition products of carboxylic acids and glycosidase bonded aromatics. Dtsch. Lebensm. Rundsch., 84 (1988) 147–150
Isla M., Craig A., Ordõnez R. Physico chemical and bioactive properties of honey from Northwestern Argentina. Lebensm. Wiss. Technol., 44(9) (2011) 1922–1930
Bertoncelj J., Doberšek U., Jamnik M., Golob T., Evaluation of the phenolic content, antioxidant activity and color of Slovenian honey. Food Chem.,105 (2007) 822–828
Soler C., Gil M.I., Garcia-Viguera C., Thomas-Barberan F.A., Flavanoid patterns of French honey with different floral origin. Apidologie., 26 (1995) 53–60
Maurya S., Kushwaha A., Singh S., Singh G., An overview of antioxidative potential of honey from different flora and geographical origins. Indian J. Nat. Prod. Res., 5(1) (2014)9–19.
AOAC, Official methods of analysis, 12th Edn., Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, DC, (1995).
Socha R., Juszczak L., Pietrzyk S., Fortuna T., Antioxidant activity and phenolic composition of herb honeys. Food Chem., 113 (2009) 568–574.
Ferreira I.C., Aires E., Barreira J.C.M., Estevinho L.M., Antioxidant activity of Portuguese honey samples: different contributions of the entire honey and phenolic extract. Food Chem.,114 (2009)1438–1443
Zhishen J., Mengcheng T., Jianming W. The determination of flavonoid contents in mulberry and their scavenging effects on superoxide radicals. Food Chem., 64 (1999)555–559.
Awad M.H., Aborawi M.E., Physicochemical characterization of honey from Kasr Khiar and Garaboli areas-Libya, Asian J. Plant Sci. Res., 6(1) (2016) 8-12.
Girliane R., Silva D., Identification of sugar, amino acids and minerals from the pollen of Jandaira stingless bees (Melipona subtidal), Food Nutr. Sci., 5 (2014) 1015-1021.
Saadiyat A.D., Ameera H.H., Determination of Heavy metals and trace element levels in honey samples from different regions of Iraq and compared with other kind, Am. J. Appl. Chem., 3(3) (2015) 83-92.
Rashed M., Soltan M., Major and trace elements in different types of Egyptian mono-flora and non-flora bee honeys, Jour. Food Comp. Anal., 17 (2004) 725735.
Codex, Honey codex alimentarius commission, FAO/WHO, (1994).
The Council of The European Union, “Council Directive 2001/110/EC of 20 December 2001 Relating to Honey,” Official Journal of the European Communities, 10 (2002) 47-52.
Karaman F., Martin L., Heavy metal in finish honey, Apiacta 35 (2000) 85-95.
Bogdanov S., Zimmerli B., Erard M., Heavy metals in honey, Mitt Gebiete Lebensm 77 (1985) 153-158.
Salama A.S., Etorki A.M., Awad M.H., Determination of Physicochemical Properties and Toxic Heavy Metals Levels in Honey Samples from West of Libya, J. Adv. Chem. Sci., 5 (1) (2019) 618–620
Lambert O., Piroux M., Puyo S., Thorin C., Larhantec M., Delbac F., Pouliquen H., Bees, honey and pollen as sentinels for lead environmental contamination. Environ Pollut., 170 (2012) 254-259.
Graseweka R., Nabrezyski M., Gajek O., Trace Metals in Bees Honey, Bromatologia İchemia toksykologiczca, 17(3) (1984) 259-260.
Sevimli H., Bayulgen N., Varinlioglu A., Determination of trace elements in honey by INAA in Turkey, J. Radıoanal. Nucl. Chem., 165 (1992) 319-325.
Yilmaz H., Yavuz O., Content of some trace metals in honey from south-eastern Anatolia. Food Chem. 65 (1999) 475-476.
Przybylowski P., Wilenzynka A., Honey as an Environmental Marker, Food Chemistry, 74 (2001) 289-291.
Tuzen M., Determination of some metals in honey samples for monitoring environmental pollution. Fresenius Environ. Bull. 11 (2002) 366-370.
Caroli S., Forte G., Lamiceli A. L., Galoppi B., Determination of Essential and Potentially Toxic Trace Element in Honey by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Based Techniques, Talanta, 50 (2) (1999) 327-336.
Adebiyi F., Akpan I., Obiajunwa E. I., Olaniyi H. B., Chemical and Physical Characterization of Nigerian Honey, Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 3( 5) (2004) 278-281.
Hernandez O. H., Fraga J. M. G., Jimenez A. I., Jimenez F., Arias J. J., Characterization of honey from the Canary Islands: Determinatıon of the mineral content by atomic absorption spectrometry. Food Chem. 93 (2005) 449-458.
Downey G., Hussey K., Kelly J. D., Walshe T. F., Martin P. G., Preliminary contribution to the characterization of artisanal honey produced on the İsland of Ireland by palynological and physico-chemical data. Food Chem. 91 (2005) 347-354.
Khalil I., Sulaiman S., Alam N., Ramli N., Mohamed M., Bai's S., Hua G. Content and antioxidant properties of processed Tualang honey (agromas®) collected from different regions in Malaysia. Int. J. Pharm. Pharm. Sci., 4(3) (2012) 214–219.
Lachman J., Orsák M., Hejtmánková A., Kovárová E. Evaluation of antioxidant activity and total phenolics of selected Czech honey. Food Sci. Technol., 43 (2010) 52–58.
Pontis J.A., Costa L.A.A., Silva S.J.R., Flach A., Color, phenolic and flavonoid content, and antioxidant activity of honey from Roraima, Brazil. Food Sci. Technol. Campinas., 34(1) (2014) 69–73.
Apia-Campos E., Saucedo M., Ramirez-Anaya J., Macias J., Physical-chemical characterization, phenolic content and consumer preference of Apis mellifera honey in southern Jalisco, Mexico. Interciencia. 42(9) (2017) 603–609.
Bouhlali E., Bammou M., Sellam K., Ramchoun M., Benlyas M., Alem C., Filali-Zegzouti Y., Evaluation of antioxidants, antibacterial and antifungal activities of eleven monofloral honey samples collected from Morocco. J. Chem. Pharm. Res., 8(3) (2016) 299–306.
Cabrera M., Perez M., Gallez L., Andrada A., Balbarrey G., Color, antioxidant capacity, phenolic and flavonoid content of honey from the Humid Chaco region, Argentina. Int. J. Exp. Bot., 86 (2017)124–130.
Copyright (c) 2019 Mohamed Elbagerma, Howell Edwards, Jamal Mayouf, Tahani Twaish
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
The author warrants that the article is original, written by stated author(s), has not been published before, contains no unlawful statements, does not infringe the rights of others, is subject to copyright that is vested exclusively in the author and free of any third party rights, and that any necessary written permissions to quote from other sources have been obtained by the author(s).