Antibacterial and cytotoxic activities of Areca catechu L. (betel nut)
Keywords:Areca Catechu L, Betel Nut, Antibacterial Assay, Cytotoxicity, Brine Shrimp Lethality Bioassay
The aim of the study was to evaluate the antibacterial and cytotoxic activities of acetone and ethanol extracts of A. catechu L. Antibacterial activity was tested against selected gram positive bacteria of Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus species and gram negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Salmonella paratyphi, Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholera using well diffusion assay. Acetonic extract showed better antibacterial activity against E. coli (20.83 mm for 100 μl/well), S. typhi (20.17 mm for 100 μl/well), S. aureus (20.17 mm for 100 μl/well). The ethanolic extract showed better antibacterial activity against P. aeruginosa (18.17 mm for 100 μl/well), S. paratyphi (17.67 mm for 100 μl/well), Micrococcus species (19 mm for 100 μl/well). Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bacterial concentration (MBC) values were determined by using broth macro dilution assay which supports antibacterial potency of the extracts. Cytotoxicity was determined by brine shrimp lethality assay: both extracts showed moderate cytotoxicity compared to vincristine sulphate (with LC50 of 0.99 μg/ml). The acetonic extract showed more cytotoxicity than the ethanolic extract with the LC50 values of 17.021 (μg/ml) and 20.136 (μg/ml). These findings are correlated with traditional medicinal uses of A. catechu and showed rationale for further investigation for screening out the possible bioactive constituents.
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