To Chemistry Journal <p><strong><em>To Chemistry Journal</em></strong> is a peer-reviewed journal that publishes original research articles as well as review articles on all aspects of fundamental and applied chemistry.</p> PURKH en-US To Chemistry Journal 2581-7507 Dielectric Properties of Drugs at Lower Frequency Range from 3 KHz to 5 MHz by using Impedance Analyzer <p>Study of dielectric properties of medicinal compounds is useful for pharmaceutical industries for design, development, and modification of dosage-form. In view of this, we selected five different medicinal compounds of importance in medicine to study their dielectric properties in terms of dielectric constant, dielectric loss, and tangent loss. We used the LCR-Q meter (impedance analyzer model IM3570) for the determination of dielectric properties. Drugs were procured (A R Grade) in powder form for making Pallets. The findings in terms of the measured values of dielectric constant, dielectric loss, and tangent loss at different frequencies are presented in graphical form and result discussed.</p> Abdul Jaleel A.H Sayyeda Ruhi Nishat Shaikh Ifrah Fatima Shaikh Y. H Copyright (c) 2020 Abdul Jaleel A.H, Sayyeda Ruhi Nishat, Shaikh Ifrah Fatima, Shaikh Y. H 2020-09-18 2020-09-18 6 209 214 Embedded Tautomerism in a DADNE embedded pull-push structure- A DFT treatise <p>1,5-Type proton tautomerism of 2-(dinitromethylene)-4,5-dinitro-2,3-dihydro-1H-imidazole structure is considered within the constraints of density functional theory at the level of B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p). One of the pentad tautomers has been found to be almost as stable as the parent structure. The local aromaticity search (NICS(0)) indicated that both of the structures have an embedded aromatic imidazole ring system, which is not expected at first sight for the parent structure and possible causes of it are sought. Also, various quantum chemical results, calculated IR, and UV spectra are obtained and discussed.</p> Lemi Türker Copyright (c) 2020 Lemi Türker 2020-08-15 2020-08-15 6 199 208 Chemical Profile and Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oil of Eucalyptus globulus Leaves from Haramaya Campus and Entoto Park, Ethiopia <p><em>Eucalyptus globulus</em> trees are available abundantly in the highland part of Ethiopia and traditionally used for the treatment of various ailments including influenza, common cold, warts, febrile illness, and headache. In view of its traditional uses, an attempt was made to explore the chemical profile and antibacterial studies of the leaves of <em>Eucalyptus globulus</em> from two district area. The chemical composition of essential oil obtained by steam distillation extraction from the leaves of <em>Eucalyptus globulus</em> was analyzed by GC–MS. The extraction yields of essential oils of the leaves of <em>E. globulus</em> collected from Haramaya Campus, and Entoto Park were 0.23% and 0.24%, respectively. Twenty-one compounds, constituting about 99.20% of the total oil, were identified from the Haramaya University Campus, whereas eighteen compounds, constituting about 98.03% of the total oil, were identified from Entoto Park. The main constituents identified in both areas were 1, 8-cineole (68.25-72.10%), cis-sabinol (12.10-14.31%), Limonene (2.35-2.96%), α-pinene (2.15-2.50%) and α-terpineol (1.62-2.13. The antimicrobial activity of the oil was evaluated against four microorganisms using paper disk diffusion methods. Essential oils extract of <em>Eucalyptus globulus</em> leaves from Haramaya Campus showed comparatively less antibacterial activity than Entoto Park.</p> Gashaw Nigussie Yemane Werede Copyright (c) 2020 Gashaw Nigussie, Yemane Werede 2020-08-15 2020-08-15 6 187 198 A study of gamma radiation effect on the magnetic properties of Ni Zn ferrite <p>A system of ferrite, namely Ni1_xZnxFe2O4 with x = (0.0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0), have been prepared by standard ceramic method to investigate the effect of gamma rays irradiations using Co<sup>60</sup> source on the magnetic properties. The unirradiated and irradiated samples were then subjected to characterization techniques of magnetization. The results of this characterization for irradiated from that of the unirradiated samples is proposed.</p> Shaikh Asif Karim Sayyed Mujeeb Hadi Copyright (c) 2020 Shaikh Asif Karim, Sayyed Mujeeb Hadi 2020-08-15 2020-08-15 6 184 186 Novel 3,5-Diaryl-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazole Derivatives: Synthesis, Antioxidant, Antimicrobial and Docking Study Against Glucosamine-6-phosphate Synthase <p>In our attempt to exploring a new class of antimicrobial and antioxidant agents, novel 4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazole derivatives were synthesized and characterized by some spectroscopic methods such as FTIR, 1HNMR, and GCMS. The antioxidant property for all the synthesized derivatives against DPPH radical was examined using TLC autographic assay then the scavenging activity was determined using the spectroscopic method. The antimicrobial study against several bacterial species (gram +ve and gram –ve) as well as candida Albicans of the potent hits, which exhibited the highest scavenging activity, was determined using a good diffusion method. The docking approach was used to explain the binding affinity of the lead hit four inside the binding site of Glucosamine-6-phosphate Synthase, the target enzyme for the antimicrobial agents.</p> Ahmed Mutanabbi Abdula Ban Hasan Taresh Mustafa Taha Mohammed Salah M Baqer Mohammed A. AL-Jaleel Khalil Ali Hameed Rasheed Copyright (c) 2020 Ahmed Mutanabbi Abdula, Ban Hasan Taresh, Mustafa Taha Mohammed, Salah M Baqer, Mohammed A. AL-Jaleel Khalil, Ali Hameed Rasheed 2020-08-15 2020-08-15 6 175 183 Research Progress of Common Organic Guanidine Antibacterial Agents <p>Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate the antimicrobial properties of organic guanidine because of their strong alkalinity, high stability, low toxicity and good biological activity. Methods: By referring to the relevant domestic and foreign literature, the physical and chemical properties, uses, preparation methods, germicidal efficacy and germicidal mechanism of guanidine compounds commonly used in alkyl guanidine, aryl guanidine, and polymerized guanidine with antibacterial properties were briefly analyzed and summarized. Result: It has been found that dodecylguanidine acetate in long-chain alkyl monoguanidine, iminoctadine in long-chain alkyl biguanide, chlorhexidine in aryl guanidine, polyhexamethylene biguanide hydrochloride(PHMB)<br>and polyhexamethylene guanidine hydrochloride(PHMG) in polymerized guanidine all had killing or inhibiting effects on bacteria, fungi and viruses. Conclusion: Guanidine compounds with broad-spectrum and high-efficiency bactericidal effect can not only be used as antibacterial agents alone, but also can be introduced into polymers to prepare materials with antibacterial properties, and the development prospect of organic guanidine antibacterial coatings is prospected.</p> Hua Li Yingping Qi Yongfeng Shen Hua Li Copyright (c) 2020 Hua Li, Yingping Qi, Yongfeng Shen, Hua Li 2020-08-15 2020-08-15 6 163 174 rGonanostructure Electrode Material for High-Performance Super-Capacitor Application <p>Carbon materials are usually light, non-toxic, and environmentally friendly with excellent reinforcement ability. They are very promising materials for the development of future generation electronics and energy storage devices. rGO has attracted interest as electrode material for energy storage owing to its high surface area, stability, and porosity. A facile method to prepare reduced graphene oxide with enhanced performance has been synthesized by chemical reduction and exfoliation from graphene oxide and exfoliated to rGO. Their efficient chemical and electrical properties, such as high conductivity efficient electrochemical stability, enable them to fulfill the requirement of modern electronic industries. The morphology showed that rGO possessed a multiple-layered structure and is porous. The electrochemical properties of rGO have been investigated as supercapacitors. The electrochemical performance of rGO showed that a specific capacitance of 70F/g at 1 A/g, capacitance retention curve showed 69.4% retention after 1000 charge-discharge cycles at 1 A/g indicating rGO can be used in high-performance supercapacitor applications. The CV curves of rGO can keep rectangular even at a scan rate of 200 m/s; this can be due to the presence of a residual oxygen-containing functional group.</p> Shikha Chander Meenu Mangal Copyright (c) 2020 Shikha Chander, Meenu Mangal 2020-08-15 2020-08-15 6 152 162 “Indole” a versatile nucleus in pharmaceutical field. <p>The present review article is related with the method of preparation, importance and medicinal application of indole. The studies of heterocycles are an evergreen field in the branch of organic chemistry and always attract the attention of chemists working not only in the area of natural products but also in the synthetic chemistry. Moreover many useful drugs have emerged from the successful investigation carried out in this branch. The derivatives of indoles exhibits antibacterial, anticancer, antioxidants, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antiviral, atniproliferative, antituberculosis, antispermetogenic activity, antipsychotic drugs etc.</p> Babasaheb Zine Shrikant Dhonde Mazahar Farooqui Copyright (c) 2020 Babasaheb Zine, Shrikant Dhonde, Mazahar Farooqui 2020-08-15 2020-08-15 6 144 151 Experimental research on the behavior of electrolytes at high frequencies Author: Parantap Nandi <p>Traditional electrolysis using direct current as a power source finds numerous applications. The electrodes having definite polarities make ionization/discharge possible. Generally, heavy currents at low voltages are used. Electrolysis using power frequency sinusoidal voltage can yield substantial products as has been proved experimentally. This relies on high voltages low currents of the order of mA. High frequency alternating currents of the order of several tens of kilohertz if harnessed carefully <em>should</em> be able to cause ionization/discharge as the case may be. This may pave the way for hydrogen production using suitable electrodes where current remains in the range of mA, unlike conventional electrolysis experiments. However, the low mobility of heavy ions may impose significant difficulties. This may be overcome using techniques such as <em>heterogeneous supply</em> and <em>auxiliary electrodes</em>. The choice of the materials used for the electrodes is very important. In this paper, electrolysis techniques using high-frequency voltage, waves have been expounded.</p> Parantap Nandi Copyright (c) 2020 Parantap Nandi 2020-08-15 2020-08-15 6 132 143 HSPA8, not C3AR1 trapped from SH-SY5Y cells: demonstrated by TLQP-21 avidin agarose affinity chromatography <p>To ‘fish out’ HSPA8 as a receptor of human TLQP-21 in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell; cross-linking, affinity chromatography and mass spectrometry-based protein identification techniques were used (by our group). Before that, in rodent cells, C3AR1 was found as a receptor of rodent TLQP-21 in CHO-K1 cells (by another group). So, it was of very much interest to find out whether C3AR1 can be ‘fished out’ as a receptor of human TLQP-21 in a human SH-SY5Y cell line or not. Here PVDF membrane (which was used for immunohistochemical validation of HSPA8 in SH-SY5Y cell line) was stripped, followed by immunohistochemical validation as before under the same condition, but C3AR1 was not found to bind with human TLQP-21. The findings concluded here that in SH-SY5Y cells, HSPA8 but not C3AR1 was documented as a receptor of human TLQP-21 using avidin agarose affinity chromatography. The significance of the study is that it provides a starting point to signpost: human TLQP-21 exerts its biological activity via HSPA8 (not C3AR1) in human SH-SY5Y cells. The further readout of TLQP-21-HSPA8 signaling can be exploited to explore new horizon in diagnosis and therapies for VGF related human diseases, especially in which TLQP-21 has been shown to affect and related with thereof.</p> Md. Shamim Akhter Jesus Rodriguez Requena Copyright (c) 2020 Md. Shamim Akhter , Jesus Rodriguez Requena 2020-08-15 2020-08-15 6 125 131 Adsorption of copper metal ion from aqueous solution by using low cost materials <p>In this study the matki (<em>Vigna aconitifolia</em>) seed husk was tested for removal of Cu metal ion from solution. Batch adsorption techniques were administered to measure the adsorption characteristics of the matki seed husk for Cu (II) metal ion removal from aqueous solutions. The adsorption isotherms, thermodynamic parameters, kinetics, effect of pH were examined. The results show that the utmost adsorption capacity of matki seed husk was approximately 80.39 % Cu (II) at temperature 305 K and at the initial Cu (II) metal ion concentration of 100 mg/L and at 5.1 pH. Adsorption isotherm data might be well fitted by Frendlich isotherm equation. Thermodynamic studies confirmed that the method was spontaneous and endothermic. The adsorption amounts of Cu (II) metal ion tend to extend with the rise in of pH. The relatively low cost and high capability of the matki seed husk make it potentially attractive adsorbent for the removal of Cu (II) metal ions from waste water</p> Dattatraya Jirekar Pramila Ghumare Shailendrasingh Thakur Mazahar Farooqui Copyright (c) 2020 Dattatraya Jirekar, Pramila Ghumare, Shailendrasingh Thakur, Mazahar Farooqui 2020-06-13 2020-06-13 6 114 124 Formation Constant of Transition Metal Complexes with Adenosine Biomolecule and Glutamic Acid and Isoleucine Amino Acids <p>Formation constants of transition metal complexes with Adenosine biomolecule, Glutamic acid and isoleucine amino acids have been studied pH metrically in 20% v/v ethyl alcohol and water medium at 30°C temperature and 0.1 M ionic strength. The proton ligand stability constant (pKa) of ligands and metal ligand stability constant (logK) of binary metal complexes were determined. It is correlated with atomic numbers, basicity of ligands, and atomic radii of metal ions. The transition metal complexes of ligands follow the Irving William natural order of stability.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Rajendra Phase Magare B. K Jagrut V B Shankarwar A.G Copyright (c) 2020 Rajendra Phase, Magare B. K, Jagrut V B, Shankarwar A.G 2020-06-13 2020-06-13 6 109 113 The Effects of Magnesium Content and Porosity on the Mechanical, Microstructural and Corrosion Properties of (1xxx) Aluminium Alloy <p>The effects of alloying elements on the mechanical, microstructural, and corrosion properties of Aluminum have been investigated. This investigation was done by fabricating alloys of Aluminum and Magnesium, with magnesium concentrations of 0.0, 0.1, 0.4, 0.8, 1.2, 1.5, and 1.8 weight percent. Subsequently, the mechanical properties of the samples were tested. Optical microstructural examinations were carried out on each of the samples, and the corrosion properties in a 0.2M H<sub>2</sub>SO<sub>4</sub> solution were determined using the coupon testing method. The results obtained show that Magnesium does not just affect the mechanical, microstructural, and corrosion properties of Aluminum, but these properties are also dependent on the relative content of Aluminum and Magnesium. It was observed that 70 (RHB) was the maximum hardness obtained, and it occurs at 0.8 wt% Mg, after which the hardness becomes negatively affected. Magnesium addition was also found to increases the corrosion rate of (1XXX) aluminum in 0.2M H<sub>2</sub>SO<sub>4</sub>. It was also observed from the micrographs of the alloys that there was a uniform dispersion of Magnesium in the matrix of Aluminum</p> Ihemaguba L. Chukwuemeka Okeoma B. Kelechukwu Gergely Greta Copyright (c) 2020 Chukwuemeka Ihemaguba, Kelechukwu Okeoma Okeoma, Gergely Greta 2020-06-13 2020-06-13 6 98 108 A Chalcones: Promising Precursor in Chemistry of Heterocycles -Short Review <p>Chalcones derivatives are α, β-unsaturated ketones with the reactive ketoethylenic i.e.1, 3- diaryl-2- propen-1-ones (Ar-CH=CH-CO-Ar) group. They are coloured used as a natural pigment. It is one of the most important classes of flavonoids &amp; iso-flavonoids across the whole edible plant kingdom. It is the oldest but remains popular in the 21<sup>st</sup> century due to a large number of replaceable hydrogens that allows a large number of derivatives. They bear excellent quality precursors because of this reason a variety of new heterocyclic compounds were synthesized. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of some derivatives of chalcones.</p> Shrikrishna Tupare Pravin Chavan Copyright (c) 2020 Shrikrishna Tupare, Pravin Chavan 2020-06-13 2020-06-13 6 85 97 Phytochemicals and Antioxidant Activity Investigation of Butea monosperma Lam. Leaves Ethanol Extract <p>The aim of this study was to investigate phytochemicals and antioxidant activity of plant<em> Butea monosperma</em> Lam. leaves ethanol extract. The different extracts of this plant were reported the rich source contents of bioactive phytochemicals in the leaves and afford for various pharmacological activities. The ethanol extract of leaves was subjected to investigate phytochemicals and antioxidant activity by using DPPH in vitro system. The provided evidence of results concluded that the ethanol extract of <em>Butea monosperma</em> Lam. leaves are potential sources of natural bioactive phytochemicals and showed potent in vitro antioxidant activity with their IC<sub>50</sub> value of 44.16 μg/ml. Therefore phytochemical investigation of plant leaves ethanol extract was noted various bioactive phytochemicals, which may serve as a potent source of natural antioxidants.</p> Bhimraj Gawade Samreen Fatema Digambar D. Gaikwad Copyright (c) 2020 Bhimraj Gawade, Samreen Fatema, Digambar D. Gaikwad 2020-06-13 2020-06-13 6 79 84 Studies of Complexation of Transition Metal Ions With Benazepril Drug in Aqueous Media: Thermodynamic Aspect <p>Stability constant of Benazepril hydrochloride drug with transition metal ions Fe<sup>3+</sup>, Co<sup>2+</sup>, Ni<sup>2+</sup>, Cu<sup>2+</sup>, Zn<sup>2+</sup> and Cd<sup>2+</sup> using a pH metric titration technique in 20%(v/v) ethanol-water mixture at three different temperatures 300K, 310K &amp; 320K at an ionic strength of 0.1M NaClO<sub>4</sub> were studied. The Calvin-Bjerrum method as adopted by Irving-Rossotti has been employed to determine metal-ligand stability, constant logK values. The trend in the formation constants for transition metal ions follows the order: <strong><em>Fe<sup>3+</sup> &gt;</em></strong> <strong><em>Cu<sup>2+ </sup>&gt; Cd<sup>2+</sup>&gt; Co<sup>2+ </sup>&gt; Zn<sup>2+ </sup>&gt; Ni<sup>2+</sup>. </em></strong>The thermodynamic parameters, such as Gibb’s free energy change (ΔG), entropy change (ΔS), and enthalpy change (ΔH) associated with the complexation reactions, were calculated.</p> Shailendrasingh Thakur M. A. Sakhare D. B. Jirekar Ramesh Ware P. P. Ghumare Copyright (c) 2020 Shailendrasingh Thakur, M. A. Sakhare, D. B. Jirekar, Ramesh Ware, P. P. Ghumare 2020-06-13 2020-06-13 6 73 78 Formation of Alkaline Earth and Transition Metal Complexes with Efavirenz Drug in Ethanol-Water Media <p>The stability constant of Efavirenz drug with alkaline earth metal ions Mg(II), Ca(II) and transition metal ions Fe(III), Cu(II) were investigate using pH metric titration technique in 20%(v/v) ethanol-water mixture at 27 °C temperature and at an ionic strength of 0.1M NaClO<sub>4</sub>.{Metal to ligand ratio = 1:5 &amp; 1:1}The method of Calvin and Bjerrum as adopted by Irving and Rossotti has been employed to determine proton ligand (pKa) and metal-ligand stability constants (log K) values. It is observed that alkaline earth metal &amp; transition metal ion forms 1:1 and 1:2 complexes. The order of stability constants for these metal complexes was as: <strong>Fe<sup>3+ </sup>&gt; Cu<sup>2+ </sup>&gt; Mg<sup>2+ </sup>&gt; Ca<sup>2+</sup> <sup> </sup></strong></p> Ramesh Ware D. B. Jirekar P. P. Ghumare Shailendrasingh Thakur Copyright (c) 2020 Ramesh Ware, D. B. Jirekar, P. P. Ghumare, Shailendrasingh Thakur 2020-06-13 2020-06-13 6 69 72 Physico-Chemical Analysis of Soil Samples from Beed District, Maharashtra <p>from Beed district, Maharashtra, India. From the Beed district, ten different places were selected for study, and the soil samples were brought to the laboratory for physic-chemical analysis. These soil samples were employed for the analysis of pH, Electrical conductivity, Total organic carbon, Nitrogen, Phosphorous (P2O5), and Potassium The present study has been undertaken to find out the Physico-chemical characteristics of soil samples collected (K2O). This study revealed that at different places of some places of Beed district have medium mineral contents, and at some places, mineral contents are of high.</p> V. V. Naiknaware Syed Abed Copyright (c) 2020 V. V. Naiknaware, Syed Abed 2020-06-13 2020-06-13 6 66 68 An Efficient and One Spot Synthesis of Silica Supported Synthesis of Fluorinated 1,3,4-Thiadiazole Derivative Under Microwave Irradiation <p>An efficient and one pot reaction of fluorinated 1,3,4-Thiadiazole derivatives was synthesis by fluorinated aromatic carboxylic with thiosemicabazide in the presence of phosphorus oxychloride as a catalyst under Microwave irradiation with silica supported. The synthesis compound was characterized by <sup>1</sup>H NMR, IR, and mass spectroscopic techniques. The present approach offers the advantages such as short reaction time, simplicity of the workup procedure, low cost and mild reaction condition.</p> Bharat K Dhotre Bhagwan Singh Dobhalb Santosh Raut Amol Kalea Pathan Mohd Arif Copyright (c) 2020 Bharat K Dhotre, Bhagwan Singh Dobhalb, Santosh Raut, Amol Kalea, Pathan Mohd Arif 2020-06-13 2020-06-13 6 61 65 Investigation of Ce3+ Adsorption by Sn(OH)X by the Gravimetric Method <p>In this work, the adsorption of Ce<sup>3+</sup> by Sn(OH)<sub>2</sub>, SnO, and Sn(OH)<sub>4</sub> was investigated. By comparing the mass of cerium oxalate caused by the adsorbed Ce<sup>3+</sup>, Sn(OH)<sub>2</sub> and Sn(OH)<sub>4</sub> have the ability to adsorb Ce<sup>3+</sup>, while Sn(OH)<sub>4</sub> has a stronger adsorption capacity of Ce<sup>3+</sup>. However, SnO does not have the ability. The possible mechanism of Sn(OH)<sub>X</sub> adsorption Ce<sup>3+</sup> was further discussed. And the result indicates that the hydroxide can adsorb cations by means of anionic groups on its surface in the solution so that the cations can be enriched on the hydroxide surface. The paper provides a new method for adjusting the microstructure of catalysts, which has a promising prospect in the field of catalysts preparation.</p> Jiejie Yan Ruixin Chen Jianshe Wang Copyright (c) 2020 Jiejie Yan, Ruixin Chen, Jianshe Wang 2020-06-13 2020-06-13 6 55 60 The Development, Verification and Evaluation of Container Closure Integrity Assessment of Prefilled Syringes Using Fluorescence Spectroflurometer <p>The preference of Prefilled syringes is increased over all the vials as container closure systems for liquid injections, when facilitated or self-administration is required.However, prefilled syringes are more complex compared to container closure system(CCS) consisting of vial, rubber stopper and flip off. Container closure integrity assurance and verification has been a specific challenge for prefilled syringes as they feature several sealing areas. A comprehensive understanding of the container closure system is necessary for an appropriate container closure integrity assessment as well as for packagingdevelopment and qualification.</p> <p>Method for the measurement ofcontainer closure integrity(CCI) of prefilled syringes using fluorescence spectrophotometry was developed and validated with a spectroflurometer.Methylene blue solution was initially evaluated as the fluorophore ina syringe with excitation at 605 nm and emission at 678 nm, which generated a limit of detection of 0.06µg/mL. Furtherstudies were conducted using Rhodamine 123, a dye with stronger fluorescence. Using 482 nm excitation and 527 nmemission, the dye in the syringe could be easily detected at levels as low as 0.001 µg/mL. The relative standard deviationfor sixmeasurements of three different sample with different concentration was less than 2.8%. A number of operational parameters were optimized, including the photomultiplier tube voltage, excitation, andemission slit widths. The specificity of container closure integrity was checked by using marketed drug products sample,which showed no interference to the rhodamine detection. Results obtained from this study demonstrated that usingrhodamine 123 for container closure integrity testing with in syringe fluorescence measurements significantlyenhanced the sensitivity and robustness of the testing and effectively overcame limitations of the traditional methylene bluemethod with visual or UV-visible absorption detection.</p> Shripad Deshpande Deepak D. Kayande Mazahar Farooqui Parag Deshmukh Copyright (c) 2020 Shripad Deshpande, Deepak D. Kayande, Mazahar Farooqui, Parag Deshmukh 2020-06-13 2020-06-13 6 48 54 A Simple HPTLC Method for Simultaneous Estimation of Atenolol and Chlorthalidone in Pharmaceuticals <p>A new simple, precise, and accurate, high-performance thin-layer chromatography method was developed for the simultaneous determination of Atenolol and Chlorthalidone in tablet dosage forms. In this method, TLC aluminum plates pre-coated with silica gel 60 F254used as the stationary phase. The mobile phase consisting of Methylene Chloride: methanol: Ammonia solution 25%, in the ratio of 8.8:1.3:0.1 v/v is used. The densitometry evaluation was done at wavelength 266 nm using Camag scanner III. The developed method shows a well resolution between two peaks Atenolol and Chlorthalidone with Rf values 0.115 (±0.03) and 0.458(±0.03), respectively. The proposed method was validated as per International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines for parameters such as specificity, precision, accuracy, linearity, and ruggedness and reported the values. The linear regression analysis shows that the correlation coefficient R2 value for Atenolol is 0.999 and 0.997, respectively. The mean percentage recovery values obtained for Atenolol is 101.4 and for Chlorthalidone is 98.4. The statistical analysis shows that this method is suitable for routine analysis for quantification of Atenolol and Chlorthalidone in single or combined dosage forms of formulations.</p> Anna Pratima G. Nikalje Ramesh Gadikar Copyright (c) 2020 Anna Pratima G. Nikalje, Ramesh Gadikar 2020-06-13 2020-06-13 6 35 47 Cement Pastes Containing Polypropylene Fibers - Part I: Physical, Chemical and Mechanical Properties <p>The influence of polypropylene fibers (PPF) addition on the physical, chemical, and mechanical properties of Portland cement pastes (OPC) was clearly evaluated. Results showed that as the PPF content increased, the water of consistency (WC) decreased, while the setting times (IST and FST) increased due to the presence of the water reducing mineral admixture (PPF). The Chemically-bound water content (BWn), bulk density (BD), and compressive strength (CS) improved and enhanced up to 0.6 wt. % PPF content, and then decreased onward at all curing times up till 90 days, while the apparent porosity shortened and then enhanced. Above 0.6 wt. % PPF content, all properties were adversely affected. The free lime content (FLn) of the OPC (PP0) increased continuously up till 90 days but decreased with PPF content at all curing ages and with all mixes (PP1-PP7).</p> H.H.M. Darweesh Copyright (c) 2020 H.H.M. Darweesh 2020-06-13 2020-06-13 6 23 34 Enzyme Assisted Biodegradation of Direct Red 81 By Micrococcus Glutamicus NCIM 2168 <p>Azo dyes have been extensively used in textile, pharmaceutical, paper, paint industries. The industries manufacturing dyes generate a large volume of water. Wastewater containing dyes in most of the cases is discharged into water bodies without any treatment or impartial treatment. This hampers not only flora and fauna of the aquatic ecosystem but showed adverse effects on human beings. Existing physical and chemical methods have their advantages and disadvantages. Biodegradation of dyes finds an eco- friendly process. In the present study, <em>Micrococcus glutamicus</em> NCIM 2168 was used for decolourization of the dye Direct Red 81. The isolate decolourized 98.54% of the dye at pH 6 and 28°C in 9 hours. Degradation of the dye was confirmed by the change in λ<sub>max </sub>of the decolorized sample. Confirmation of the degradation was done by HPLC and GCMS studies. Degradation was brought about by Oxidoreductases. Toxicity studies revealed nontoxic nature of the product. The culture was found to decolourise mixture of five dyes. Hence, the selected bacterial culture can be successfully used for the treatment of dye containing wastewater</p> Madhuri Sahasrabudhe Copyright (c) 2020 2020-06-13 2020-06-13 6 16 22 Determination of Attenuation Coefficients of Some Selected Soil Samples by Using Gamma Energy at 0.360 Mev <p>The study of attenuation coefficients of various materials is an important part of research in radiation physics, chemistry, human health, and agriculture. In addition, the linear and mass absorption coefficients have a major role in the estimation of absorbed dose use in the medical and radiation dosimetry. In this paper, the liner and mass absorption coefficients, half-value layer, tenth value layer, and mean free path have been determined by performing the experiment of gamma irradiation on soil samples for gamma energy 0.360 MeV using NaI(Tl) detector. Furthermore, the physicochemical properties of the investigated soil samples were measured using standard methods to assess soil quality. Samples of soil were collected from different sites of Aurangabad-India and prepared using standard techniques. The mass attenuation coefficient decreases exponentially with increasing density and confirms the interaction of gamma-ray with different soil samples of various components. The mass absorption coefficient depends on sample density, gamma energy, the chemical composition of the soil, and its physical properties. The experimentally measured values are in good agreement which validates the gamma absorption law. Generally, the absorption coefficients of gamma-ray measured in this study can be used for the determination of gamma-ray interaction with any soil samples. The study has practical importance to know the nature of the soil to be used in agriculture and construction purposes.</p> Abdu Hamoud Al-khawlany J. M.Pathan Ifra Fatema Copyright (c) 2020 Abdu Hamoud Al-khawlany, J. M.Pathan, Ifra Fatema 2020-06-13 2020-06-13 6 9 15 New Chromogenic Spray Reagent for TLC Detection and Identification of Organophosphrous Insecticide Monocrotophos in Biological Material. <p>Monocrotophos is a member of Organophosphate insecticide. It is an important insecticide and has a diversified role in agriculture in INDIA. The increasing numbers of human poisoning cases were found to be occurred by the consumption of organophosphate insecticide monocrotophos. So in this paper, we represent a novel Thin Layer Chromatographic spray reagent for the detection and identification of Monocrotophos.</p> U D Pawar C D Pawar B S Dhobal R K Pardeshi Copyright (c) 2020 U D Pawar, C D Pawar, B S Dhobal, R K Pardeshi 2020-06-13 2020-06-13 6 5 8 Phytopharmacognostic, Antibacterial Activity of Different Extract of Terminalia Arjuna Roxb Leaves <p>The wealth of India is stored in the broad natural flora which has been gifted to her. Endowed with a variety of agro-climatic conditions, India is a virtual herbarium of the world. The importance of medicinal and aromatic plants has been emphasized from time to time. It is accepted that the drug of natural origin shall play an important role in health care, particularly in the rural areas of India. India is having a high knowledge of phototherapy from Ayurveda, and still, hundreds of potent drugs are yet to be evaluated scientifically. Keeping this in view, we reviewed one of the potential trees whose leaves and other parts also have a potent traditional application, but it has not been much studied. </p> Ghumare Pramila Dattatraya Jirekar Shailendrasingh Thakur Ramesh Ware Mazahar Farooqui Copyright (c) 2020 Ghumare Pramila, Dattatraya Jirekar, Shailendrasingh Thakur, Ramesh Ware, Mazahar Farooqui 2020-06-13 2020-06-13 6 1 4 Editorial for volume 6 (2020) <p>On behalf of the Editorial Board, it is with great pride and sincere privilege that I am writing this message to present the Special Volume 6 (2020) of the <em>To Chemistry Journal</em>. This volume is published in collaboration with the analytical Chemistry Teachers and Researchers Association (ACTRA) founded in the Year 2004.</p> Dr. Mazahar Farooqui Copyright (c) 2020 2020-06-13 2020-06-13 6