To Chemistry Journal <p><strong><em>To Chemistry Journal</em></strong> is a peer-reviewed journal that publishes original research articles as well as review articles on all aspects of fundamental and applied chemistry.</p> PURKH en-US To Chemistry Journal 2581-7507 Phytopharmacognostic, Antibacterial Activity of Different Extract of Terminalia Arjuna Roxb Leaves <p>The wealth of India is stored in the broad natural flora which has been gifted to her. Endowed with a variety of agro-climatic conditions, India is a virtual herbarium of the world. The importance of medicinal and aromatic plants has been emphasized from time to time. It is accepted that the drug of natural origin shall play an important role in health care, particularly in the rural areas of India. India is having a high knowledge of phototherapy from Ayurveda, and still, hundreds of potent drugs are yet to be evaluated scientifically. Keeping this in view, we reviewed one of the potential trees whose leaves and other parts also have a potent traditional application, but it has not been much studied. </p> Ghumare Pramila Dattatraya Jirekar Shailendrasingh Thakur Ramesh Ware Mazahar Farooqui Copyright (c) 2020 Ghumare Pramila, Dattatraya Jirekar, Shailendrasingh Thakur, Ramesh Ware, Mazahar Farooqui 2020-06-13 2020-06-13 6 1 4 New Chromogenic Spray Reagent for TLC Detection and Identification of Organophosphrous Insecticide Monocrotophos in Biological Material. <p>Monocrotophos is a member of Organophosphate insecticide. It is an important insecticide and has a diversified role in agriculture in INDIA. The increasing numbers of human poisoning cases were found to be occurred by the consumption of organophosphate insecticide monocrotophos. So in this paper, we represent a novel Thin Layer Chromatographic spray reagent for the detection and identification of Monocrotophos.</p> U D Pawar C D Pawar B S Dhobal R K Pardeshi Copyright (c) 2020 U D Pawar, C D Pawar, B S Dhobal, R K Pardeshi 2020-06-13 2020-06-13 6 5 8 Determination of Attenuation Coefficients of Some Selected Soil Samples by Using Gamma Energy at 0.360 Mev <p>The study of attenuation coefficients of various materials is an important part of research in radiation physics, chemistry, human health, and agriculture. In addition, the linear and mass absorption coefficients have a major role in the estimation of absorbed dose use in the medical and radiation dosimetry. In this paper, the liner and mass absorption coefficients, half-value layer, tenth value layer, and mean free path have been determined by performing the experiment of gamma irradiation on soil samples for gamma energy 0.360 MeV using NaI(Tl) detector. Furthermore, the physicochemical properties of the investigated soil samples were measured using standard methods to assess soil quality. Samples of soil were collected from different sites of Aurangabad-India and prepared using standard techniques. The mass attenuation coefficient decreases exponentially with increasing density and confirms the interaction of gamma-ray with different soil samples of various components. The mass absorption coefficient depends on sample density, gamma energy, the chemical composition of the soil, and its physical properties. The experimentally measured values are in good agreement which validates the gamma absorption law. Generally, the absorption coefficients of gamma-ray measured in this study can be used for the determination of gamma-ray interaction with any soil samples. The study has practical importance to know the nature of the soil to be used in agriculture and construction purposes.</p> Abdu Hamoud Al-khawlany J. M.Pathan Ifra Fatema Copyright (c) 2020 Abdu Hamoud Al-khawlany, J. M.Pathan, Ifra Fatema 2020-06-13 2020-06-13 6 9 15 Enzyme Assisted Biodegradation of Direct Red 81 By Micrococcus Glutamicus NCIM 2168 <p>Azo dyes have been extensively used in textile, pharmaceutical, paper, paint industries. The industries manufacturing dyes generate a large volume of water. Wastewater containing dyes in most of the cases is discharged into water bodies without any treatment or impartial treatment. This hampers not only flora and fauna of the aquatic ecosystem but showed adverse effects on human beings. Existing physical and chemical methods have their advantages and disadvantages. Biodegradation of dyes finds an eco- friendly process. In the present study, <em>Micrococcus glutamicus</em> NCIM 2168 was used for decolourization of the dye Direct Red 81. The isolate decolourized 98.54% of the dye at pH 6 and 28°C in 9 hours. Degradation of the dye was confirmed by the change in λ<sub>max </sub>of the decolorized sample. Confirmation of the degradation was done by HPLC and GCMS studies. Degradation was brought about by Oxidoreductases. Toxicity studies revealed nontoxic nature of the product. The culture was found to decolourise mixture of five dyes. Hence, the selected bacterial culture can be successfully used for the treatment of dye containing wastewater</p> Madhuri Sahasrabudhe Copyright (c) 2020 2020-06-13 2020-06-13 6 16 22 Cement Pastes Containing Polypropylene Fibers - Part I: Physical, Chemical and Mechanical Properties <p>The influence of polypropylene fibers (PPF) addition on the physical, chemical, and mechanical properties of Portland cement pastes (OPC) was clearly evaluated. Results showed that as the PPF content increased, the water of consistency (WC) decreased, while the setting times (IST and FST) increased due to the presence of the water reducing mineral admixture (PPF). The Chemically-bound water content (BWn), bulk density (BD), and compressive strength (CS) improved and enhanced up to 0.6 wt. % PPF content, and then decreased onward at all curing times up till 90 days, while the apparent porosity shortened and then enhanced. Above 0.6 wt. % PPF content, all properties were adversely affected. The free lime content (FLn) of the OPC (PP0) increased continuously up till 90 days but decreased with PPF content at all curing ages and with all mixes (PP1-PP7).</p> H.H.M. Darweesh Copyright (c) 2020 H.H.M. Darweesh 2020-06-13 2020-06-13 6 23 34 A Simple HPTLC Method for Simultaneous Estimation of Atenolol and Chlorthalidone in Pharmaceuticals <p>A new simple, precise, and accurate, high-performance thin-layer chromatography method was developed for the simultaneous determination of Atenolol and Chlorthalidone in tablet dosage forms. In this method, TLC aluminum plates pre-coated with silica gel 60 F254used as the stationary phase. The mobile phase consisting of Methylene Chloride: methanol: Ammonia solution 25%, in the ratio of 8.8:1.3:0.1 v/v is used. The densitometry evaluation was done at wavelength 266 nm using Camag scanner III. The developed method shows a well resolution between two peaks Atenolol and Chlorthalidone with Rf values 0.115 (±0.03) and 0.458(±0.03), respectively. The proposed method was validated as per International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines for parameters such as specificity, precision, accuracy, linearity, and ruggedness and reported the values. The linear regression analysis shows that the correlation coefficient R2 value for Atenolol is 0.999 and 0.997, respectively. The mean percentage recovery values obtained for Atenolol is 101.4 and for Chlorthalidone is 98.4. The statistical analysis shows that this method is suitable for routine analysis for quantification of Atenolol and Chlorthalidone in single or combined dosage forms of formulations.</p> Anna Pratima G. Nikalje Ramesh Gadikar Copyright (c) 2020 Anna Pratima G. Nikalje, Ramesh Gadikar 2020-06-13 2020-06-13 6 35 47 The Development, Verification and Evaluation of Container Closure Integrity Assessment of Prefilled Syringes Using Fluorescence Spectroflurometer <p>The preference of Prefilled syringes is increased over all the vials as container closure systems for liquid injections, when facilitated or self-administration is required.However, prefilled syringes are more complex compared to container closure system(CCS) consisting of vial, rubber stopper and flip off. Container closure integrity assurance and verification has been a specific challenge for prefilled syringes as they feature several sealing areas. A comprehensive understanding of the container closure system is necessary for an appropriate container closure integrity assessment as well as for packagingdevelopment and qualification.</p> <p>Method for the measurement ofcontainer closure integrity(CCI) of prefilled syringes using fluorescence spectrophotometry was developed and validated with a spectroflurometer.Methylene blue solution was initially evaluated as the fluorophore ina syringe with excitation at 605 nm and emission at 678 nm, which generated a limit of detection of 0.06µg/mL. Furtherstudies were conducted using Rhodamine 123, a dye with stronger fluorescence. Using 482 nm excitation and 527 nmemission, the dye in the syringe could be easily detected at levels as low as 0.001 µg/mL. The relative standard deviationfor sixmeasurements of three different sample with different concentration was less than 2.8%. A number of operational parameters were optimized, including the photomultiplier tube voltage, excitation, andemission slit widths. The specificity of container closure integrity was checked by using marketed drug products sample,which showed no interference to the rhodamine detection. Results obtained from this study demonstrated that usingrhodamine 123 for container closure integrity testing with in syringe fluorescence measurements significantlyenhanced the sensitivity and robustness of the testing and effectively overcame limitations of the traditional methylene bluemethod with visual or UV-visible absorption detection.</p> Shripad Deshpande Deepak D. Kayande Mazahar Farooqui Parag Deshmukh Copyright (c) 2020 Shripad Deshpande, Deepak D. Kayande, Mazahar Farooqui, Parag Deshmukh 2020-06-13 2020-06-13 6 48 54 Investigation of Ce3+ Adsorption by Sn(OH)X by the Gravimetric Method <p>In this work, the adsorption of Ce<sup>3+</sup> by Sn(OH)<sub>2</sub>, SnO, and Sn(OH)<sub>4</sub> was investigated. By comparing the mass of cerium oxalate caused by the adsorbed Ce<sup>3+</sup>, Sn(OH)<sub>2</sub> and Sn(OH)<sub>4</sub> have the ability to adsorb Ce<sup>3+</sup>, while Sn(OH)<sub>4</sub> has a stronger adsorption capacity of Ce<sup>3+</sup>. However, SnO does not have the ability. The possible mechanism of Sn(OH)<sub>X</sub> adsorption Ce<sup>3+</sup> was further discussed. And the result indicates that the hydroxide can adsorb cations by means of anionic groups on its surface in the solution so that the cations can be enriched on the hydroxide surface. The paper provides a new method for adjusting the microstructure of catalysts, which has a promising prospect in the field of catalysts preparation.</p> Jiejie Yan Ruixin Chen Jianshe Wang Copyright (c) 2020 Jiejie Yan, Ruixin Chen, Jianshe Wang 2020-06-13 2020-06-13 6 55 60 An Efficient and One Spot Synthesis of Silica Supported Synthesis of Fluorinated 1,3,4-Thiadiazole Derivative Under Microwave Irradiation <p>An efficient and one pot reaction of fluorinated 1,3,4-Thiadiazole derivatives was synthesis by fluorinated aromatic carboxylic with thiosemicabazide in the presence of phosphorus oxychloride as a catalyst under Microwave irradiation with silica supported. The synthesis compound was characterized by <sup>1</sup>H NMR, IR, and mass spectroscopic techniques. The present approach offers the advantages such as short reaction time, simplicity of the workup procedure, low cost and mild reaction condition.</p> Bharat K Dhotre Bhagwan Singh Dobhalb Santosh Raut Amol Kalea Pathan Mohd Arif Copyright (c) 2020 Bharat K Dhotre, Bhagwan Singh Dobhalb, Santosh Raut, Amol Kalea, Pathan Mohd Arif 2020-06-13 2020-06-13 6 61 65 Physico-Chemical Analysis of Soil Samples from Beed District, Maharashtra <p>from Beed district, Maharashtra, India. From the Beed district, ten different places were selected for study, and the soil samples were brought to the laboratory for physic-chemical analysis. These soil samples were employed for the analysis of pH, Electrical conductivity, Total organic carbon, Nitrogen, Phosphorous (P2O5), and Potassium The present study has been undertaken to find out the Physico-chemical characteristics of soil samples collected (K2O). This study revealed that at different places of some places of Beed district have medium mineral contents, and at some places, mineral contents are of high.</p> V. V. Naiknaware Syed Abed Copyright (c) 2020 V. V. Naiknaware, Syed Abed 2020-06-13 2020-06-13 6 66 68 Formation of Alkaline Earth and Transition Metal Complexes with Efavirenz Drug in Ethanol-Water Media <p>The stability constant of Efavirenz drug with alkaline earth metal ions Mg(II), Ca(II) and transition metal ions Fe(III), Cu(II) were investigate using pH metric titration technique in 20%(v/v) ethanol-water mixture at 27 °C temperature and at an ionic strength of 0.1M NaClO<sub>4</sub>.{Metal to ligand ratio = 1:5 &amp; 1:1}The method of Calvin and Bjerrum as adopted by Irving and Rossotti has been employed to determine proton ligand (pKa) and metal-ligand stability constants (log K) values. It is observed that alkaline earth metal &amp; transition metal ion forms 1:1 and 1:2 complexes. The order of stability constants for these metal complexes was as: <strong>Fe<sup>3+ </sup>&gt; Cu<sup>2+ </sup>&gt; Mg<sup>2+ </sup>&gt; Ca<sup>2+</sup> <sup> </sup></strong></p> Ramesh Ware D. B. Jirekar P. P. Ghumare Shailendrasingh Thakur Copyright (c) 2020 Ramesh Ware, D. B. Jirekar, P. P. Ghumare, Shailendrasingh Thakur 2020-06-13 2020-06-13 6 69 72 Studies of Complexation of Transition Metal Ions With Benazepril Drug in Aqueous Media: Thermodynamic Aspect <p>Stability constant of Benazepril hydrochloride drug with transition metal ions Fe<sup>3+</sup>, Co<sup>2+</sup>, Ni<sup>2+</sup>, Cu<sup>2+</sup>, Zn<sup>2+</sup> and Cd<sup>2+</sup> using a pH metric titration technique in 20%(v/v) ethanol-water mixture at three different temperatures 300K, 310K &amp; 320K at an ionic strength of 0.1M NaClO<sub>4</sub> were studied. The Calvin-Bjerrum method as adopted by Irving-Rossotti has been employed to determine metal-ligand stability, constant logK values. The trend in the formation constants for transition metal ions follows the order: <strong><em>Fe<sup>3+</sup> &gt;</em></strong> <strong><em>Cu<sup>2+ </sup>&gt; Cd<sup>2+</sup>&gt; Co<sup>2+ </sup>&gt; Zn<sup>2+ </sup>&gt; Ni<sup>2+</sup>. </em></strong>The thermodynamic parameters, such as Gibb’s free energy change (ΔG), entropy change (ΔS), and enthalpy change (ΔH) associated with the complexation reactions, were calculated.</p> Shailendrasingh Thakur M. A. Sakhare D. B. Jirekar Ramesh Ware P. P. Ghumare Copyright (c) 2020 Shailendrasingh Thakur, M. A. Sakhare, D. B. Jirekar, Ramesh Ware, P. P. Ghumare 2020-06-13 2020-06-13 6 73 78 Phytochemicals and Antioxidant Activity Investigation of Butea monosperma Lam. Leaves Ethanol Extract <p>The aim of this study was to investigate phytochemicals and antioxidant activity of plant<em> Butea monosperma</em> Lam. leaves ethanol extract. The different extracts of this plant were reported the rich source contents of bioactive phytochemicals in the leaves and afford for various pharmacological activities. The ethanol extract of leaves was subjected to investigate phytochemicals and antioxidant activity by using DPPH in vitro system. The provided evidence of results concluded that the ethanol extract of <em>Butea monosperma</em> Lam. leaves are potential sources of natural bioactive phytochemicals and showed potent in vitro antioxidant activity with their IC<sub>50</sub> value of 44.16 μg/ml. Therefore phytochemical investigation of plant leaves ethanol extract was noted various bioactive phytochemicals, which may serve as a potent source of natural antioxidants.</p> Bhimraj Gawade Samreen Fatema Digambar D. Gaikwad Copyright (c) 2020 Bhimraj Gawade, Samreen Fatema, Digambar D. Gaikwad 2020-06-13 2020-06-13 6 79 84 A Chalcones: Promising Precursor in Chemistry of Heterocycles -Short Review <p>Chalcones derivatives are α, β-unsaturated ketones with the reactive ketoethylenic i.e.1, 3- diaryl-2- propen-1-ones (Ar-CH=CH-CO-Ar) group. They are coloured used as a natural pigment. It is one of the most important classes of flavonoids &amp; iso-flavonoids across the whole edible plant kingdom. It is the oldest but remains popular in the 21<sup>st</sup> century due to a large number of replaceable hydrogens that allows a large number of derivatives. They bear excellent quality precursors because of this reason a variety of new heterocyclic compounds were synthesized. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of some derivatives of chalcones.</p> Shrikrishna Tupare Pravin Chavan Copyright (c) 2020 Shrikrishna Tupare, Pravin Chavan 2020-06-13 2020-06-13 6 85 97 The Effects of Magnesium Content and Porosity on the Mechanical, Microstructural and Corrosion Properties of (1xxx) Aluminium Alloy <p>The effects of alloying elements on the mechanical, microstructural, and corrosion properties of Aluminum have been investigated. This investigation was done by fabricating alloys of Aluminum and Magnesium, with magnesium concentrations of 0.0, 0.1, 0.4, 0.8, 1.2, 1.5, and 1.8 weight percent. Subsequently, the mechanical properties of the samples were tested. Optical microstructural examinations were carried out on each of the samples, and the corrosion properties in a 0.2M H<sub>2</sub>SO<sub>4</sub> solution were determined using the coupon testing method. The results obtained show that Magnesium does not just affect the mechanical, microstructural, and corrosion properties of Aluminum, but these properties are also dependent on the relative content of Aluminum and Magnesium. It was observed that 70 (RHB) was the maximum hardness obtained, and it occurs at 0.8 wt% Mg, after which the hardness becomes negatively affected. Magnesium addition was also found to increases the corrosion rate of (1XXX) aluminum in 0.2M H<sub>2</sub>SO<sub>4</sub>. It was also observed from the micrographs of the alloys that there was a uniform dispersion of Magnesium in the matrix of Aluminum</p> Ihemaguba L. Chukwuemeka Okeoma B. Kelechukwu Gergely Greta Copyright (c) 2020 Chukwuemeka Ihemaguba, Kelechukwu Okeoma Okeoma, Gergely Greta 2020-06-13 2020-06-13 6 98 108 Formation Constant of Transition Metal Complexes with Adenosine Biomolecule and Glutamic Acid and Isoleucine Amino Acids <p>Formation constants of transition metal complexes with Adenosine biomolecule, Glutamic acid and isoleucine amino acids have been studied pH metrically in 20% v/v ethyl alcohol and water medium at 30°C temperature and 0.1 M ionic strength. The proton ligand stability constant (pKa) of ligands and metal ligand stability constant (logK) of binary metal complexes were determined. It is correlated with atomic numbers, basicity of ligands, and atomic radii of metal ions. The transition metal complexes of ligands follow the Irving William natural order of stability.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Rajendra Phase Magare B. K Jagrut V B Shankarwar A.G Copyright (c) 2020 Rajendra Phase, Magare B. K, Jagrut V B, Shankarwar A.G 2020-06-13 2020-06-13 6 109 113 Adsorption of copper metal ion from aqueous solution by using low cost materials <p>In this study the matki (<em>Vigna aconitifolia</em>) seed husk was tested for removal of Cu metal ion from solution. Batch adsorption techniques were administered to measure the adsorption characteristics of the matki seed husk for Cu (II) metal ion removal from aqueous solutions. The adsorption isotherms, thermodynamic parameters, kinetics, effect of pH were examined. The results show that the utmost adsorption capacity of matki seed husk was approximately 80.39 % Cu (II) at temperature 305 K and at the initial Cu (II) metal ion concentration of 100 mg/L and at 5.1 pH. Adsorption isotherm data might be well fitted by Frendlich isotherm equation. Thermodynamic studies confirmed that the method was spontaneous and endothermic. The adsorption amounts of Cu (II) metal ion tend to extend with the rise in of pH. The relatively low cost and high capability of the matki seed husk make it potentially attractive adsorbent for the removal of Cu (II) metal ions from waste water</p> Dattatraya Jirekar Pramila Ghumare Shailendrasingh Thakur Mazahar Farooqui Copyright (c) 2020 Dattatraya Jirekar, Pramila Ghumare, Shailendrasingh Thakur, Mazahar Farooqui 2020-06-13 2020-06-13 6 114 124 Editorial for volume 6 (2020) <p>On behalf of the Editorial Board, it is with great pride and sincere privilege that I am writing this message to present the Special Volume 6 (2020) of the <em>To Chemistry Journal</em>. This volume is published in collaboration with the analytical Chemistry Teachers and Researchers Association (ACTRA) founded in the Year 2004.</p> Dr. Mazahar Farooqui Copyright (c) 2020 2020-06-13 2020-06-13 6