Computer Reviews Journal <p><em>Computer Reviews</em> is scientific, international peer-reviewed/Referred online journal that is devoted to fields of&nbsp;computing to provide rapid publication of articles frequently in its issues.</p> PURKH en-US Computer Reviews Journal 2581-6640 <p>The author warrants that the article is original, written by stated author(s), has not been published before, contains no unlawful statements, does not infringe the rights of others, is subject to copyright that is vested exclusively in the author and free of any third party rights, and that any necessary written permissions to quote from other sources have been obtained by the author(s).</p> Editorial, Volume 5 (2019) <p>On behalf of the Editorial Board, it is with great pride and sincere privilege that I am writing this message to present the volume 5 (2019) of the&nbsp;<em>Computer Reviews Journal</em>. The issue comes from a long process, and we took all the necessary steps to make it a high-caliber scientific publication. We are relying on the collaboration of all our Editors, reviewers, and contributors to make it a contemporary, lively, and relevant publication.</p> Dr. Hari Mohan Srivastava Copyright (c) 2019-12-30 2019-12-30 5 Annual Reviewer Acknowledgement <p>The Editorial team of the journal would like to thank the following reviewers for their work in refereeing manuscripts during 2019</p> Dr. Hari Mohan Srivastava Copyright (c) 2019 Chief Editor 2019-12-21 2019-12-21 5 Cost Factors of Municipal Water Has Social Values and Scientific Applications <p>Water (H2O) is an important bio-chemical compound and it has life-supporting role. Water purification is a scientific process of chemical treatment. High-quality water demand for pure chemical synthesis such as boiler feedwater. Drug industries welcome centralized compared to onsite treatment, recycling technologies considering economics of scale. Boiled Feed (V) Water is important for IVF (Inter Venus Fluid) and its comparative costs and lessons learned could be used to build treatment facilities. Government policy and regulations, economic cost, corporate sustainability, environmental agency can enforce to get high-quality water.</p> Gazi Farok Dr. Edward (Ted) Petroff Copyright (c) 2019 Gazi Farok, Dr. Edward (Ted) Petroff 2019-12-17 2019-12-17 5 1 6 Image Fusion: A Review <p>At the present time, image fusion is considered as one of the types of integrated technology information, it has played a significant role in several domains and production of high-quality images. The goal of image fusion is blending information from several images, also it is fusing and keeping all the significant visual information that exists in the original images. Image fusion is one of the methods of field image processing. Image fusion is the process of merging information from a set of images to consist one image that is more informative and suitable for human and machine perception. It increases and enhances the quality of images for visual interpretation in different applications. This paper offers the outline of image fusion methods, the modern tendencies of image fusion and image fusion applications. Image fusion can be performed in the spatial and frequency domains. In the spatial domain is applied directly on the original images by merging the pixel values of the two or more images for purpose forming a fused image, while in the frequency domain the original images will decompose into multilevel coefficient and synthesized by using inverse transform to compose the fused image. Also, this paper presents a various techniques for image fusion in spatial and frequency domains such as averaging, minimum/maximum, HIS, PCA and transform-based techniques, etc.. Different quality measures have been explained in this paper to perform a comparison of these methods.</p> Rusul Qayssar M. Jebur Copyright (c) 2019 rusul, Qayssar M.Jebur 2019-12-17 2019-12-17 5 7 21 Use of Social Networking Sites in Academics: A Review <p>In the current era with the advent horizon of technology and its usage, encouraged the use of social networking sites among the society. In the last decade, it made an imperative impact and rapid change on the working on almost all organizations and professions be it businesses, industries, or academia. In the academic organizations, the use of social networking sites by students and youths for academic and non-academic communication is increasing rapidly in India and Oman. Social networking sites is itself provide massive communication channels and service that can support and yield in getting solutions to many administrative issues for academic institutions. However, Universities and institutions have not formally accepted in India. This paper reviews surveys and experiments by academic researchers in various parts of the world. To evident, the usefulness and significance of SNS in academic world several studied and experiments have been elaborated in this paper. During this study top fifteen universities in the world have been taken into consideration. The comparative study has been carried out among them with reference to use of social networking sites and their relative factors. We found that almost all universities are very much aware and have significant place in their system.&nbsp; The result brings the fact that use of social networking sites in academic institutions will bring the significant change in the operations and task handling, hence proposed.</p> Murtaza Mohiuddin Junaid Farooque Mohammed Aref Copyright (c) 2019 Murtaza Mohiuddin Junaid Farooque, Mohammed Aref 2019-12-16 2019-12-16 5 22 31 Robust RLS Wiener Fixed-Interval Smoother in Linear Discrete-Time Stochastic Systems with Uncertain Parameters <p>This paper proposes the robust RLS Wiener filter and fixed-interval smoothing algorithms based on the innovation approach. As a result, the robust RLS Wiener filtering algorithm is same as the existing robust RLS Wiener filtering algorithm. The estimation accuracy of the fixed-interval smoother is compared with the robust RLS Wiener filter and the following fixed-interval smoothers. In the proposed robust RLS Wiener fixed-interval smoother, the case, where the observed value is replaced with the robust filtering estimate of the signal, is also simulated. (1) The RLS Wiener fixed-interval smoother in which the filtering estimate of the state is replaced with the robust RLS Wiener filtering estimate. (2) The RTS (Rauch-Tung-Striebel) fixed-interval smoother in which the filtering estimate of the state is replaced with the robust RLS Wiener filtering estimate. (3) The &nbsp;RLS Wiener fixed-interval smoother and the &nbsp;RLS Wiener filter. (4) The RLS Wiener fixed-interval smoother in which the filtering estimate of the state is replaced with the robust RLS Wiener filtering estimate and the observed value is replaced with the robust RLS Wiener filtering estimate of the signal. From the simulation results, the most feasible estimation technique for the fixed-interval smoothing estimate is the RLS Wiener fixed-interval smoother. Here, the robust filtering estimate is used and the observed value is replaced with the robust filtering estimate.</p> Seiichi Nakamori Copyright (c) 2019 Seiichi Nakamori 2019-12-16 2019-12-16 5 33 55 Modulation Signal Chain for a 5G PDSCH Reciever <p>LTE (Long Term Evolution), marketed as 5G LTE, is a standard for wireless communication of high-speed data for mobile phones and data terminals. It increases the system capacity and speed. The standard is developed by the 3GPP (3<sup>rd</sup> Generation Partnership Project). The scrambling and modulation was implemented using hardware and software methods. The using of scrambling and modulation mapping with help of constellation method is used. Constellation method is easily differentiating the real and imaginary terms of the modulation mapping. Depending on the hardware structure, particular scrambling and modulation mapping was designed using Verilog RTL coding. Simulation and synthesis was carried out using Xilinx Vivado 2015.4.2 design and implemented on Artix-7 FPGA board. Clock cycle delay is reduced to two clock cycles</p> Deepa R M Aruna kumara Copyright (c) 2019 Deepa R M, Aruna kumara 2019-12-17 2019-12-17 5 56 65 Cyber Physical Systems: The Role of Machine Learning and Cyber Security in Present and Future <p>Today’s technology are changing very rapidly and making an important place in the heart of humans. For example, when internet connected things after connect with other devices, they make a big system which solve complex problems and make people life easier and longer to live. One of biggest/ popular revolution of technology is “Cyber Physical System”. Cyber Physical systems (CPSs) are the systems/ mechanism which are controlled and monitored remotely. CPSs system work with connecting other systems through Internet and its users (by computer-based algorithms). In near future in Industry 4.0 revolution, the uses of cyber physical systems will be on top position. Using such systems give invitation to attackers for performing attacks. But, an attacker can harm a physical and cyber space easily, i.e., affecting physical processes will affect computations (also efficiency of CPS systems). For example, nuclear facilities were affected in 2010 (in Iran) by poplar attack “Stuxnet”. Also, an attacker can control a medical device remotely which will be affected the condition of patients (also will leak private information of patient/ hospital employee). Such serious concerns are being highlighted in this article using machine learning and cyber security frequently (time to time) or an alternative schedule. Maintaining such system is really a difficult task, so if do we can save a lot of energies and unwanted attacks, etc., in overall. Hence, this article is being written with considering future serious concerns and challenges with CPSs, and listing out of such critical issues one by one (in detail).</p> Sravanthi Reddy K Shamila M Amit Kumar Tyagi Copyright (c) 2019 sravanthi reddy k, sHAMILA M, Amit Kumar Tyagi 2019-12-16 2019-12-16 5 66 80 Beyond Everything: The Role and Importance of Cybersecurity in Smart Era <p>In a world where everything is ruled by technology and software, it is very important that our personal and private files and details remain secure and undiscovered by other systems in the network. Today, the immediate way of sending any urgent information is through e-mails, WhatsApp etc., all of which is sent and travels through the network (public or private). A network is an interconnection of billions of computers, these computers are connected to each other. Though they cannot be accessed directly due to restrictions and different protocols and nature of different systems, but it is not impossible. There have been many major (serious) cyber-attacks in the past three decades. Even today situation is that developed counties are interested to do launch trade war or cyber war against their enemy nation except a physical war (without killing anyone, demolishing a nation financially). Note that many computer criminals are wanted till date. Now days, everything from money transaction, sending or sharing important/ confidential information and even in hospitals medical equipment like in an oxygen cylinder the pressure and speed of the devices are all monitored by machines that are operated on software. So, any unauthorized access into any software with criminal intention not only affects property but also tampers with health of people (or patient or citizen of a nation). So, to detect any kind of intrusion into a software or system, many researchers recommend to use Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS), but still unable to secure systems completely. Hence, this research article provides the essential information like importance of keeping user’s information private and secure, algorithms that can protect the system from intrusion, vulnerabilities in network and the major cyber-attacks in history (in previous decade) and how to prevent yourself from such kind of attacks and to be aware (with providing several rules, policies, digital forensics, threat hunting, etc.) in this smart era.</p> Shamila Roshni Nawaz Amit Kumar Tyagi Copyright (c) 2019 SHAMILA, Roshni Nawaz, Amit Kumar Tyagi 2019-12-16 2019-12-16 5 81 93 Positioning and Smoothing Movement Approaches of a Linear Actuator Dedicated to A Biomedical Application <p>The movement of linear stepper motors is characterized by a highly oscillatory translation, which is troublesome for the positional accuracy and the speed constant (often required by many industrial applications such as the syringe pump). These oscillations can lead to loss of synchronism and stall risk. Thus, in order to attenuate the amplitudes of these oscillations and to guarantee the positioning of the actuator without errors, solutions exploiting open-loop and closed-loop control techniques are proposed in this paper for the purpose of improve the performance of the actuator</p> Imed Mahmoud Adel Khedher Copyright (c) 2019 Imed MAHMOUD, Adel Khedher 2019-12-16 2019-12-16 5 94 105 The Dynamics and Attractivity for a Rational Recursive Sequence of Order Three <p>This paper is concerned with the behavior of solution of the nonlinear difference equation</p> <p><img src="/public/site/images/editor/0011.PNG"></p> <p>where the initial conditions <img src="/public/site/images/editor/0021.PNG">are arbitrary positive real numbers and a,b,c,d,e are positive constants.</p> Kholoud Alharbi E. M. Elsayed Copyright (c) 2019 Kholoud Alharbi, E. M. Elsayed 2019-12-17 2019-12-17 5 106 116 Analysis of Qos Aware Cloud Based Routing for Improved Security <p>The recent advances and the convergence of micro electro-mechanical systems technology, integrated circuit technologies, microprocessor hardware and Nano-technology, wireless communications, Ad-hoc networking routing protocols, distributed signal processing, and embedded systems have made the concept of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). Sensor network nodes are limited with respect to energy supply, restricted computational capacity and communication bandwidth. Most of the attention, however, has been given to the routing protocols since they might differ depending on the application and network architecture. To prolong the lifetime of the sensor nodes, designing efficient routing protocols is critical. Even though sensor networks are primarily designed for monitoring and reporting events, since they are application dependent, a single routing protocol cannot be efficient for sensor networks across all applications. In this paper, we analyze the design issues of sensor networks and present a classification and comparison of routing protocols. This comparison reveals the important features that need to be taken into consideration while designing and evaluating new routing protocols for sensor networks. A reliable transmission of packet data information, with low latency and high energy-efficiency, is truly essential for wireless sensor networks, employed in delay sensitive industrial control applications. The proper selection of the routing protocol to achieve maximum efficiency is a challenging task, since latency, reliability and energy consumption are inter-related with each other. It is observed that, Quality of Service (QoS) of the network can improve by minimizing delay in packet delivery, and life time of the network, can be extend by using suitable energy efficient routing protocol.</p> Rahul M Pethe G. M. Asutkar S. M. Asutkar Copyright (c) 2019 Rahul M Pethe, g. M. Asutkar, s. M. Asutkar 2019-12-17 2019-12-17 5 117 125 Statistical Maintenance Time Estimation Based on Stochastic Differential Equation Models in OSS Development Project <p>At present, the method of earned value management is often applied to the actual software projects in various IT companies. Also, open source software (OSS) are used under the various situations, because the OSS are useful for many users to make a cost reduction, standardization of systems, and quick delivery. Many OSS are developed under the peculiar development style known as bazaar method. According to the bazaar method, many faults are detected and fixed by developers around the world, and the fixed result will be reflected in the next release. In this paper, we discuss an OSS effort estimation model by using a conventional stochastic differential equation model. Moreover, we propose an optimal maintenance problem based on the proposed effort estimation model. Then, we discuss the optimal maintenance problem minimizing the maintenance effort and satisfying the earned value requirement, simultaneously. In addition, we also propose a method of judging whether the optimal maintenance time is an appropriate time from the viewpoint of the transition probability distribution of the cumulative number of maintenance effort, because proper management of maintenance effort affects software quality. Furthermore, several numerical examples of optimal maintenance time problem with earned value requirement are shown by using the effort data under actual OSS project</p> Hironobu Sone Yoshinobu Tamura Shigeru Yamada Copyright (c) 2019 Hironobu Sone, Yoshinobu Tamura, Shigeru Yamada 2019-12-16 2019-12-16 5 126 140