Realization of Equilibrium Distributions of Molecules in Gases Boris Georgievich Golovkin

  • Boris Georgievich Golovkin Public Institute of Natural and Human Sciences. Ekaterinburg, Russia.
Keywords: Maxwell Distribution, Equal-Velocity Distribution, Universal Distribution, Ideal Gas, Ultimate Gas, Real Gas


It is shown that all possible distributions of molecules of an ideal gas with zero dimensions of monatomic molecules that collide elastically with each other are in equilibrium, and with nonzero dimensions, a universal equilibrium distribution of the gas molecules along with the velocities and angular momentum must arise. In a real gas in an isolated system, due to dissipation, evolution goes simultaneously toward the universal distribution and toward the occurrence of an equal-velocity distribution, and also towards the degradation of the gas due to the decrease of the molecular velocities to zero values. In a non-isolated system, the real gas has a distribution close to the Maxwell distribution


Download data is not yet available.


Maxwell, J.K. Explanations to the dynamic theory of gases. In the book: "Proceedings on the kinetic theory of gases." M. BINOM. Laboratory of knowledge. 2014. P. 121, 125, 159. 406 p. ISBN 978-5-9963-0120-1.

Lavenda B.H. Statistical physics. A Probabilistic Approach. New York. A Wiley-Interscience Publication; J.Wiley and Sons, Inc. 1991. 371 p.

Landau L.D., Lifshits E.M. Theoretical physics. Vol. V. Statistical physics. P.1. M. FIZMATLIT. 2002. 616 p.

Savelyev I.V. Course of General Physics. T. I. M .: Science. FIZMATLIT. 1977. 416 p.

Levich V.G. Course of theoretical physics. T. I. M .: Science. FIZMATLIT. 1969. 912 p.

Boltzman L. Selected Works. Molecular-kinetic theory of gases. Thermodynamics. Static physics. Theory of radiation. General Physics. M. Science. 1984. 589 p.

Encyclopedia of low-temperature plasma. Series B. Reference applications. Database and data banks. Volume VII-1. Mathematical modeling in low-temperature plasma. Part 3. Ed. Yu.P. Popova. Janus-K. M. 2008. P. 17–26, 38.

Lifshitz E.M., Pitaevsky L.P. Theoretical physics. Vol. X. Physical kinetics. Science. FIZMATLIT. ISBN 5-9221-0125-0. M. 2002. 536 p.

Levich V.G., Vdovin Yu.A., Myamlin V.A. Course of theoretical physics. Vol. 2. Science. FIZMATLIT. M. 1971. 936 p.

Silin V.P. / Introduction to the kinetic theory of gases. M. URSS. 2013. 344 p. ISBN 978-5-03354-1.

Petrina D.Ya., Gerasimenko V.I., Malishev P.V. / Mathematical foundations of classical statistical mechanics. // М. URSS. 2014. 272 p. ISBN 978-5-397-04312-0.

Haitun S.D. / Invectives against the law of increasing entropy, the hypothesis of the fractality of the universe. / М. URSS. 2018. 328 с. ISBN 978-5-9710-5255-5.

Golovkin B.G. / Distribution of the lengths of free paths of gas molecules. // World Scentific News. 2019. V. 119. P. 243 – 247.

Golovkin B.G. / The dependence of the distribution of mean free paths of gas molecules on temperature and pressure. // Noosphere. Society. Man.2019. № 2. URL:

Vlasov A.A. / Statistical distribution functions. / М. URSS. 2014. 360 p. ISBN 978-5-9710-1164-4.

Abaimov S.G. / Statistical physics of complex systems. From fractals to scaling behavior. / М. URSS. 2016. 392 p. ISBN 978-5-397-05207-8.

Golovkin B.G. / Physical meaning temperature of gas and separate molecule // World Scientific News. 2018. V. 94. № 2. P. 313–320.

Golovkin B.G. / The temperature of the molecule. // Engineering Physics. 2016. № 11. С. 22–24.

Golovkin B.G. /The temperature of the molecule. The distribution of gas molecules by their temperatures / East European Scientific Journal. 2015. # 4. Part 3. P. 103 – 105.

Golovkin B.G. / Dependence of gas temperature on the temperatures of its molecules. Noosphere. Society. Man. 2018. № 1. URL:

Golovkin B.G. / Causes of thermodynamic anomalies of reactions involving the gas phase. // Abstracts of the second seminar of the SB RAS - Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences "New inorganic materials and chemical thermodynamics". Yekaterinburg. 2002. P. 50.

Golovkin B.G. / Dependence of the mechanisms of gas-solid-state reactions on the distribution of velocities of gas molecules. All-Russian Conference "Solid State Chemistry and Functional Materials". Abstracts of reports. Yekaterinburg. 2008.P. 80.

Nikolayev S.A. Evolutionary cycle of matter in the universe. St. Petersburg: Polytechnic University. 2007. P. 9, 121. 304 p.

Yavorsky BM, Pinsky AA Fundamentals of Physics. T. I. Science. FIZMATLIT. M. 1974. P. 144-148.

Golovkin BG Dark matter and the Casimir effect are possible causes of Maxwell's distribution. East European Scientific Journal. 2015. # 2. Part 3. P. 43-49.

Buchholz N.N. Basic course of theoretical mechanics. Part 2. Science. FIZMATLIT. M. 1969. P. 286-304.

Nevzglyadov V.G. Theoretical mechanics. Science. FIZMATLIT. M. 1959. P. 286–292. 584 p.

How to Cite
Golovkin, B. G. (2019). Realization of Equilibrium Distributions of Molecules in Gases Boris Georgievich Golovkin. To Physics Journal, 4, 61-68. Retrieved from
Research Articles