To Physics Journal https://purkh.com/index.php/tophy <div class="bgf5 borrad4 pad15 fontsize16 fonttim"><em>To Physics</em> is a peer-reviewed, open-access journal that publishes original research articles and reviews articles in all areas of physics. The goal of this journal is to provide a platform for scientists and academicians all over the world to promote, share, and discuss various new issues and developments in different areas of physics.</div> en-US <p>The author warrants that the article is original, written by stated author(s), has not been published before, contains no unlawful statements, does not infringe the rights of others, is subject to copyright that is vested exclusively in the author and free of any third party rights, and that any necessary written permissions to quote from other sources have been obtained by the author(s).</p> editor@purkh.com (Gurdev Singh) tophy@purkh.com (Gurpreet Kaur) Tue, 31 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 3.1.2.4 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Editorial, Volume 4 (2019) https://purkh.com/index.php/tophy/article/view/650 <p>On behalf of the Editorial Board, it is with great pride and sincere privilege that I am writing this message to present the volume 4 (2019) of the&nbsp;<em>To Physics Journal</em>. The issue comes from a long process, and we took all the necessary steps to make it a high-caliber scientific publication. We are relying on the collaboration of all our Editors, reviewers, and contributors to make it a contemporary, lively, and relevant publication.</p> Dr. P. Lakshmi Praveen Copyright (c) https://purkh.com/index.php/tophy/article/view/650 Mon, 30 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Annual Reviewer Acknowledgement https://purkh.com/index.php/tophy/article/view/636 <p>The Editorial team of the journal would like to thank the following reviewers for their work in refereeing manuscripts during 2019</p> Dr. P. Lakshmi Praveen Copyright (c) 2019 Chief Editor http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://purkh.com/index.php/tophy/article/view/636 Sat, 21 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0000 The Effect of Energy Transportation of High-Energy Electrons on the Electromagnetic Instability https://purkh.com/index.php/tophy/article/view/482 <p>The energy transportation of High-energy electrons to the compressed fuel and study of affected factors on it are the most important issues in fast ignition method. In this research, regarding the role of Weibel instability in process modulation and possible impacts of electron and plasma beam velocity to reach higher energy yields, the effect of temporal variation of particle distribution in the presence of laser electric fields on growth and<br>condition of Weibel instability in beam-plasma medium were investigated in the form of a classic system without any Coulombic collision between the particles and magnetic fields. The results show that the time-dependent drift velocity leads to a decrease the growth rate of the Weibel when energy transportation of energetic particles to the fusion plasma systems increases.</p> M. Mahdavi, F. Vaziri Copyright (c) 2019 M. Mahdavi, F. Vaziri http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://purkh.com/index.php/tophy/article/view/482 Tue, 17 Dec 2019 08:29:09 +0000 Fractal Properties of the Gas Giants and their satellites within the Solar System https://purkh.com/index.php/tophy/article/view/626 <p>This study reveals the fractal structure of gas giants and their moons. For this purpose, fractal analysis of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune and 182 moons was performed based on their radius (size). The results obtained reveal the fractal geometry of the planet / moon systems within the outer Solar system (SS). The resulting fractal dimensions (D) range from -0.57 to -1.43, decreasing with distance from the Sun. This requires a thorough analysis.</p> Rosen Iliev, Boyko Ranguelov Copyright (c) 2019 Rosen Iliev, Boyko Ranguelov http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://purkh.com/index.php/tophy/article/view/626 Tue, 31 Dec 2019 04:46:30 +0000 Any L-States Solutions of The Modified Schrodinger Equation with Generalized Hellmann–Kratzer Potential Model in The Symmetries of NRNCQM https://purkh.com/index.php/tophy/article/view/521 <p>In the present research paper, the approximate analytical solutions of the modified radial Schrodinger equation (MSE) have been obtained with a newly proposed potential called generalized Hellmann–Kratzer potential (GHKP) model by using the improved approximation scheme to the centrifugal term for any <em>l</em>-states. The potential is a superposition of the Hellmann–Kratzer potential model and new terms proportional with (1/ r<sup>3</sup>, 1/ r<sup>4</sup>,&nbsp; exp (-ar)/r<sup>2</sup> and exp (-ar)/r<sup>3</sup>), appears as a result of the effects of noncommutativity properties of space and phase on the Hellmann–Kratzer potential model. We applied the generalized Bopp’s shift method and standard perturbation theory, in the nonrelativistic noncommutative three-dimensional real space phase (NC: 3D-RSP) instead to solving MSE directly with star product. The bound state energy eigenvalues for the some diatomic molecules such as, <em>N<sub>2</sub>, CO, NO</em> and <em>CH</em>&nbsp; and obtained in terms of the generalized the Gamma function, the discreet atomic quantum numbers (<em>(j, n, l, s,</em> <em>and </em>m<em>)</em>), two infinitesimal parameters(a, b) which are induced automatically by position-position and phase-phase noncommutativity properties, in addition to, the dimensional parameters <em>(V</em><sub style="font-style: italic;">1, </sub><em>V, </em>a, r<sub>e</sub>, D<sub>e</sub><em>)</em> of GHKP model. Furthermore, we have shown that the corresponding Hamiltonian operator in (NC: 3D-RSP) symmetries is the sum of the Hamiltonian operator of the HKP model and two operators, the first one is the modified spin-orbit interaction while the second is the modified Zeeman operator for the previous diatomic molecule.</p> Abdelmadjid Maireche Copyright (c) 2019 Abdelmadjid Maireche http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://purkh.com/index.php/tophy/article/view/521 Tue, 17 Dec 2019 09:27:25 +0000 Borohydride Reduction of Cobalt Oxide (Co3O4) Nanoparticles https://purkh.com/index.php/tophy/article/view/526 <p>Recently, magnetic nanomaterials have been used in a wide range of applications such as medicine and electronics. In this research, rod-like shaped cobalt oxide magnetic nanoparticles (Co<sub>3</sub>O<sub>4</sub>) were synthesized by a simple co-precipitation method using cobalt chloride as a precursor and sodium borohydride (NaBH<sub>4</sub>) as reducing agent. Their structural and surface morphological properties were characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and vibration sampling magnetometer with (VSM). XRD measurement exhibited the structure of Co<sub>3</sub>O<sub>4</sub> nanocrystals for annealed samples. The TEM results showed the cobalt oxide nanoparticles with good uniformity in the range size of 10-40 nm. The SEM images revealed that the particles changed from spherical shape to rod-like shape with increasing temperature. Magnetic measurements showed the coercive field of around 84.5G and saturation magnetization of annealed of around 9.83 emu/g.</p> Majid Farahmandjou, Somayeh Shadrokh, Ali Moghimi Copyright (c) 2019 Majid Farahmandjou, Somayeh Shadrokh, Ali Moghimi http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://purkh.com/index.php/tophy/article/view/526 Tue, 17 Dec 2019 09:35:39 +0000 Thermal Properties of Pineapple Leaf Composite and its Suitability as a Viable Alternative for Efficient Roofing Material https://purkh.com/index.php/tophy/article/view/533 <p>For self-cooling building designs, the thermal properties of pineapple (Ananas Comosus) stalk composite were investigated and compared with those of asbestos with a view to establishing its suitability as ceiling material. Sample boards from pineapple leaves were prepared by drying and grinding, then forming them into boards without an external binder. The major parameter, thermal conductivity К was determined using Lee’s Disc apparatus. Other parameters determined were specific heat capacity c, density ρ, thermal resistivity ρ<sub>th</sub>, thermal diffusivity λ, and thermal absorptivity α, were determined by using the appropriate experimental methods or calculations. The thermal conductivity of Ananas Comosus was determined to be 0.0719±0.0007Wm<sup>-1</sup>K<sup>-1</sup>. Using the same Lee’s Disc apparatus method, the thermal conductivity of the commercial asbestos ceiling sheet was measured to be 0.195Wm<sup>-1</sup>K<sup>-1</sup>. This value is about 85% of the value (0.17Wm<sup>-1</sup>K<sup>-1) \</sup>) quoted in textbooks. Our pineapple stalk sheet is clearly a poorer heat conductor than the asbestos sheet.&nbsp; Other parameters determined here – the specific heat capacity, the thermal diffusivity, etc, support our findings that the investigated material can serve as a good material for efficient “cool roof” building design</p> Armstrong Anonaba, E. C. Mbamala, U.S. Mbamara Copyright (c) 2019 Armstrong Anonaba, Emmanuel Mbamala, Mbamara http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://purkh.com/index.php/tophy/article/view/533 Tue, 17 Dec 2019 09:37:52 +0000 Using COMSOL Multiphysics To Simulate Radiation from Dipole Antenna and First Iteration Cantor Set Shape Antenna https://purkh.com/index.php/tophy/article/view/547 <p>The method of electromotive force (emf) for calculation of antenna impedance is applicable to a very limited number of antenna configurations such as monopole and dipole antenna. In more general antenna structures, especially when complicated geometry such as fractals is involved numerical techniques are essential. There are Electromagnetic (EM) simulation softwares such as G-NEC, XFDTD for the modelling studies in which is essential an understanding of the fundamental theory behind these numerical techniques in creating the antenna models. In this paper, we compare the radiation from dipole antenna and the antenna with shape of the first iteration of Cantor set. The simulation of this problem has been done by COMSOL Multi-physics software.</p> Amir Pishkoo, Mehdi Azhini, Nasibeh Delfaan Copyright (c) 2019 Amir Pishkoo, Mehdi Azhini, Nasibeh Delfaan http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://purkh.com/index.php/tophy/article/view/547 Tue, 17 Dec 2019 09:39:35 +0000 Bare Surfaces Analysis within Ograzhden Mountain (Bulgarian Part) https://purkh.com/index.php/tophy/article/view/557 <p>The presence of bare surfaces is one of the main indicators for the degradation of natural ecosystems. The spread of bare surfaces and respectively the lack of vegetation cover is a serious threat to the sustainable development of complex environments such as mountains. The present study focuses on the spatial-temporal relationships of the bare surfaces with the local environment within the Bulgarian part of the small border mountain of Ograzhden. Based on temporal imageries from the Landsat 8 satellite, an analysis of the spatial distribution and tendencies in the development of bare surfaces has been made over a two-year period of time. Overall, the results of the research show a reduction in the total area of bare surfaces on the one hand and a slow environmental recovery on the other. Unfortunately, the positive changes are not ubiquitous, but describe only certain areas of the territory of interest.</p> Rosen Iliev Copyright (c) 2019 Rosen Iliev http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://purkh.com/index.php/tophy/article/view/557 Tue, 17 Dec 2019 09:41:54 +0000 Realization of Equilibrium Distributions of Molecules in Gases Boris Georgievich Golovkin https://purkh.com/index.php/tophy/article/view/563 <p>It is shown that all possible distributions of molecules of an ideal gas with zero dimensions of monatomic molecules that collide elastically with each other are in equilibrium, and with nonzero dimensions, a universal equilibrium distribution of the gas molecules along with the velocities and angular momentum must arise. In a real gas in an isolated system, due to dissipation, evolution goes simultaneously toward the universal distribution and toward the occurrence of an equal-velocity distribution, and also towards the degradation of the gas due to the decrease of the molecular velocities to zero values. In a non-isolated system, the real gas has a distribution close to the Maxwell distribution</p> Boris Georgievich Golovkin Copyright (c) 2019 Boris Georgievich Golovkin http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://purkh.com/index.php/tophy/article/view/563 Tue, 17 Dec 2019 09:43:30 +0000 On Another Form of the Energy Density for Electromagnetic Fields and Its Relation to the Electrokinetic Field https://purkh.com/index.php/tophy/article/view/609 <p>By virtue of the existence so called electrokinetic field encountered in electromagnetic phenomena, a new form of the energy density of the electromagnetic field is obtained.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Andrew Chubykalo, Augusto Espinoza Copyright (c) 2019 Andrew Chubykalo, Augusto Espinoza http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://purkh.com/index.php/tophy/article/view/609 Wed, 18 Dec 2019 08:47:30 +0000 Soft Turbulence in Bénard Convection Towards Intelligent Virtual Agents https://purkh.com/index.php/tophy/article/view/617 <p>This paper is concerned with logic dominant approach to intelligent virtual agents. It is found that the super complex systems can be only explored by syntheses together with intuition and/or imagination. This is not because we have limited tools to solve the super complex systems, but this approach is essential to solve such problems</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Takeo Nakagawa, Ai Nakagawa Copyright (c) 2019 Takeo Nakagawa, Ai Nakagawa http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://purkh.com/index.php/tophy/article/view/617 Tue, 17 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Conformable Derivative and Fractal Derivative of Functions on the Interval [0,1] https://purkh.com/index.php/tophy/article/view/573 <div>Recently, a calculus-based fractal, called F<sup>α</sup>-calculus, has been developed which involve F<sup>α</sup>-integral, conjugate to the Riemann&nbsp;integral, and Fα-derivative, conjugate to ordinary derivative, of orders α, 0&lt; α &lt;1, where α is the dimension of F. In F <sup>α</sup>-calculus the staircase function has a special role. In this paper we obtain fractal Taylor series for fractal elementary functions, sine, cosine, exponential function, etc. and then we compare the graph of these fractal functions with their counterparts in standard calculus on the interval [0,1]. Then, the main part of the paper is discussed about the transition from continuous state to a discrete state when we do fractal differentiation in which characteristic function χC<sup>(x)</sup> appears. Since Fα-derivative is local, we compare it with a conformable derivative which is also local. Moreover, fractal differential equations for fractal sine, cosine, sine hyperbolic, cosine hyperbolic and exponential functions are deduced. We also represent Pythagorean trigonometric identity for sin and cosine, and hyperbolic sine and hyperbolic cosine in F <sup>α</sup>-calculus, respectively</div> Amir Pishkoo, Mohammed-Reza Mardanbeigi, Fakhri Jafari Copyright (c) 2019 Amir Pishkoo, Mohammed-Reza Mardanbeigi, Fakhri Jafari http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://purkh.com/index.php/tophy/article/view/573 Tue, 31 Dec 2019 06:22:35 +0000 Nano Structural Properties of Lead Doped Cadmium Sulfide (Cd1-xPbxS) Thin Films Deposited by Spray Pyrolysis Technique https://purkh.com/index.php/tophy/article/view/512 <p>Lead doped cadmium sulfide thin films Cd<sub>1-x</sub>Pb<sub>x</sub>S (0 ≤ x ≥ 0.20) were deposited onto a glass substrate at a temperature of 523K at a low-cost spray pyrolysis technique. They were characterized by their structural and optical properties, by energy dispersive x-ray analysis, scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction respectively. X-ray diffraction patterns of the films are identified as (100), (002), (101), (102), (110), (103) and (201) planes which have a hexagonal crystal structure. No extra peak developing with the increasing Pd concentration. The direct bandgap energy of the film depends on the concentration. This value varies from 2.52 eV to 2.17 eV as required for solar cell and optoelectronic device applications.</p> Ranojit Kumar Dutta Copyright (c) 2019 RANOJIT KUMAR DUTTA http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://purkh.com/index.php/tophy/article/view/512 Tue, 17 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0000