Sustainable development without amicable growth challenges of societal injustice


  • Talmeez Fatma Naqvi Maulana Azad National Urdu University


Sustainable development is taken to mean as the development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. It underlines the concept of needs, in particular the essential needs of the world's poor, to which overriding priority needs to be given (World Commission on Environment and Development, Our Common Future 1987). At the core of sustainable development is the need to consider “three pillars” together: society, economy and environment (OECD 2008). In a way, this demands harmony between resources and time, space and various social segments with preferential emphasis on the development of the marginalised social segments. The inclusive approach for sustainable development recognizes the need for all people to be involved in the process and decisions that affect their lives. Societies and economies which are embedded with lack or absence of harmony and practice exclusivity obstructing development of certain poor segments of society may neither develop well nor sustain development. In view of this, the Caste System and within it the de facto position of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes (SCs and STs) emerge as a major point of intense consideration in relation to sustainable development.

The available evidence shows that the SC/STs continue to remain a deprived lot. The importance of human resource capital, particularly education, for growth is duly recognised but the SC/STs are obstructed even in the institution of learning from acquiring potentialities for the required purpose. Also, they face psychologically aggressive environment on account of their birth-based (humiliating) status and this denudes them of self respect and nips their productive potential at the budding stage. Moreover, they acquire psychological sickness of sorts. At the end of the day, they emerge as burden even for themselves instead of being productive stake holders in the society and economy.

Can we move on the path of sustainable development by neglecting SC/STs? This demands an immediate as well as long term solution. The first and foremost need is to come out of denial mode. Or else, our economy and society is, in all likelihood, to face consequences associated with racism.


Download data is not yet available.


Bhugra, D. & Cochrane, R. (eds) (2000) Psychiatry in Multicultural Britain. London: Gaskell.

Blascovich, J., Spencer, S., Quinn, D., & Steele, C. (2001). African Americans and high blood pressure: The role of stereotype threat. Psychological Science, 12, 225-229.

Branscombe, N. R., & Ellemers, N. (1998). Coping with group-based discrimination: Individualistic versus group-level strategies. In J. K. Swim & C. Stangor (Eds.), Prejudice: The target’s perspective (pp. 243-266). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Brundtland Commission (1987). "Report of the World Commission on Environment and Development". United Nations.

Burke, A. W. (1984) Racism and psychological disturbance among west Indians in Britain. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 30, 50 -68.

Cadinu, M., Maass, A., Frigerio, S., Impagliazzo, L., & Latinotti, S. (2003). Stereotype threat: The effect of expectancy on performance. European Journal of Social Psychology, 33, 267-285.

Cadinu, M., Maass, A., Rosabianca, A., & Kiesner, J. (2005). Why do women underperform under stereotype threat? Evidence for the role of negative thinking. Psychological Science, 16, 572-578.

Chandra, R. (2005). Identity and Genesis of Caste system in India, Delhi: Kalpaz publications,

Chung-Herrera, B. G., & Lankau, M. J. (2005). Are we there yet? An assessment of fit between stereotypes of minority managers and the successful-manager prototype. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 35, 2029-2056.

Clark, R., Anderson, N. B., Clark, V. R., Williams, D.R. (1999). Racism as a Stressor for African Americans: A Biopsychosocial Model. American Psychologist, 54 (10), 805-816.

Croizet, J., & Claire, T. (1998). Extending the concept of stereotype threat to social class: The intellectual underperformance of students from low socioeconomic backgrounds. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 24, 588-594.

Croizet, J., Depres, G., Gauzins, M., Huguet, P., Levens, J., & Meot, A. (2004). Stereotype threat undermines intellectual performance by triggering a disruptive mental load. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 30, 721-731.

Divakar, P. (2015)

Ellemers, N. (1998). Coping with group-based discrimination: Individualistic versus group-level strategies. In J. K. Swim & C. Stangor (Eds.), Prejudice: The target’s perspective (pp. 243-266). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Ellemers, N., Van Knippenberg, A., de Vries, N. K., & Wilke, H. (1988). Social identification and permeability of group boundaries. European Journal of Social Psychology, 18, 497-513

Ely, R. (1995). The power of demography: Women’s social constructions of gender identity at work. Academy of Management Journal, 38, 589-634.

Fernando, S. (1984) Racism as a cause of depression. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 30, 41 -49.

Gonzales, P. M., Blanton, H., & Williams, K. J. (2002). The effects of stereotype threat and double-minority status on the test performance of Latino women. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28, 659-670.

Harrell, S. P. (2000). A Multidimensional Conceptualization of Racism Related Stress: Implications for the WellBeing of People of Color. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 70 (1), 42-57.

Heilman, M. E., Block, C. J., Martell, R. F., & Simon, M. C. (1989). Has anything changed? Current characterizations of men, women, and managers. Journal of Applied Psychology, 74, 935-942

Hippel, W., von Hippel, C., Conway, L., Preacher, K. J., Schooler, J. W., & Radvansky, G. A. (2005). Coping with stereotype threat: Denial as an impression management strategy. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 89, 22-35.

Inzlicht, M., McKay, L., & Aronson, J. (2006). Stigma as ego depletion: How being the target of prejudice affects self-control. Psychological Science, 17, 262-269.

Jadhav, Radheshyam, (2012) Dalit students face discrimination when it comes to mid-day meals. Jun 25 KRACKTIVIST

Joiner, T.E. (2005). Why people die by suicide. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Keller, J. (2002). Blatant stereotype threat and women’s math performance: Self handicapping as a strategic means to cope with obtrusive negative performance expectations. Sex Roles, 47, 193-198.

Kirchheimer, S. (2003). Racism Is Harmful to Health "Antiracism" Initiatives Needed, But Slow to Be Recognized, web MD News Archive.

Kray, L. J., Galinksy, A. D., & Thompson, L. (2002). Reversing the gender gap in negotiations: An exploration of stereotype regeneration. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 87, 386-409.

Kray, L. J., Reb, J., Galinsky, A. D., & Thompson, L. (2004). Stereotype reactance at the bargaining table: The effect of stereotype activation and power on claiming and creating value. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 30, 399-411.

Krieger, N. (2000) Discrimination and health. In Social Epidemiology (eds L. Berkman & I. Kawachi), pp. 36-75. Oxford: Oxford University Press

Mary Thornton, Patricia Bricheno, Ponni Iyer, Ivan Reid, Govardhan Wankhede and Roger Green (2010) Diversity and social integration on higher education campuses in India and the UK: student and staff perspectives ERIC

Naomi Priest, Yin Paradies, Brigid Trenerry, Mandy Truong, Saffron Karlsen, Yvonne Kelly. (2013) A systematic review of studies examining the relationship between reported racism and health and wellbeing for children and young people. Social Science & Medicine, 2013; 95: 115 DOI: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2012.11.031

Nyborg, V. M. & Curry, J. F. (2003). The Impact of Perceived Racism: Psychological Symptoms among African American Boys. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 32 (2), 258-266.

OECD Insight: Sustainable Development-linking economy, society and environment; Paris 2008 chapter 2)

Osborne, J. W. (2006). Gender, stereotype threat and anxiety: Psychophysiological and cognitive evidence. Journal of Research in Educational Psychology, 8, 109-138. Osborne, J. W. (2007). Linking stereotype threat and anxiety. Educational Psychology, 27, 135-154.

Ovichegan, Samson. (2013). The experiences of Dalit students and faculty in one elite university in India: an exploratory study. EThOS

Pronin, E., Steele, C. M., & Ross, L. (2004). Identity bifurcation in response to stereotype threat: Women and mathematics. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 40, 142-168.

Rajshekar, V T (2002). Caste A Nation within the Nation, Bangalore: books for change

Roberson, L., Deitch, E., Brief, A. P., & Block, C. J. (2003). Stereotype threat and feedback seeking in the workplace. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 62, 176-188.

Samar, A. P. (2010). Casteism Is Racism and India Should Stop Interfering In ‘Internal Affairs’ of Britain! Published in, on 10 September 2010

Sashidharan, S. P. (1993) Afro-Caribbeans and schizophrenia: the ethnic vulnerability hypothesis re-examined. International Review of Psychiatry, 5, 129-144.

Schmader, T., & Johns, M. (2003). Converging evidence that stereotype threat reduces working memory capacity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85, 440-452.

Shapiro, J. R., & Neuberg, S. L. (2007). From stereotype threat to stereotype threats: Implications of a multi-threat framework for causes, moderators, mediators, consequences, and interventions. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 11, 107-130

Stangor, C., Carr, C., & Kiang, L. (1998). Activating stereotypes undermines task performance expectations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75, 1191-1197.

Steele & Aronson, 1995), Steele, C. M., & Aronson, J. (1995). Stereotype threat and the intellectual test performance of African Americans. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85, 440-452.

Steele, C. M., Spencer, S. J., & Aronson, J. (2002). Contending with group image: The psychology of stereotype and social identity threat. In M. P. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 34, pp. 379-440). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Stone, J. (2002). Battling doubt by avoiding practice: The Effect of stereotype threat on self-handicapping in White athletes. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28, 1667-1678.

Stone, J., Lynch, C. I., Sjomeling, M., & Darley, J. M. (1999). Stereotype threat effects on Black and White athletic performance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77, 1213-1227.

Sukumar, N, (2008) Living a Concept: Semiotics of Everyday Exclusion, Economic and Political Weekly. Vol. 43, Issue No. 46,

Throat, S. (2016) Discrimination on the campus. The Hindu. January 26

Times of India (Dec 19 2014) Stop caste discrimination in midday meal: Panel

Tisdell, C. (2014). Sustainable Development of Human Resource Capital. Retrieved from:

Tomkiewicz, J., Brenner, O. C., & Adeyemi-Bello, T. (1998). The impact of perceptions and stereotypes on the managerial mobility of African Americans. Journal of Social Psychology, 138, 88-92.



How to Cite

Naqvi, T. F. (2018). Sustainable development without amicable growth challenges of societal injustice. SOCIALSCI JOURNAL, 1(2), 70-77. Retrieved from



Research Articles