Game Theory in Political Science and Public Policy: The Case of the Establishment of the United Arab Emirates


  • Ahmed Mustafa Elhussein Mansour United Arab Emirates University


Game Theory, Political Science, Public Policy


The objective of this article is quasi-experimental. By using the logic of game theory to explain the establishment of the state of the United Arab Emirates, the article intends to test the ability of game theory to explain a pre-played game. Although formal game theory is not susceptible to experimentation, game to political science and public policy is like experiments to psychology. Hence this paper attempts to use the already played game of the establishment of the state of the United Arab Emirates as an experiment to answer the question: is the outcome of this game conforms with game theory modeling. Thus, the article models that game as the Extended Battle of Sexes game and use both the normal and extensive forms to address that question.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biography

Ahmed Mustafa Elhussein Mansour, United Arab Emirates University

United Arab Emirates University


Anatol, R., & Carol, O. (1962). Experimental games: A review. Behavioral Science, 7(1), 1–37. Retrieved from

Apfelbaum, E. (1974). On Conflicts and Bargaining. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 7(C), 103–156.

Arce, D., & Sandler, T. (2003). Terrorism and game theory. Simulation & Gaming, 34(3), 1–33. Retrieved from,5&as_vis=1#15

Atkinson, R. C., & Suppes, P. (1958). An analysis of two-person game situations in terms of statistical learning theory. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 55(4), 369–378.

Aumann, R., & Brandenburger. (1995). Epistemic Conditions for Nash Equilibrium. Econoetrica.

Aumann, R. J. (1985). What is game theory trying to accomplish? Frontiers of Economics, Edited by K. Arrow and S. Honkapohja, 909–924. Retrieved from

Austen-Smith, D. (2006). Economic Methods in Positive Political Theory. In B. W. and D. Wittman (Ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Political Economy.

Axelrod, R., & Dion, D. (1988). The further evolution of cooperation. Science, 242(4884), 1385–1390.

Brams, S. J. (1975). Game Theory and Politics. Retrieved from

Colman, A. M. (2003). Game theory and its applications in the social and biological sciences. Routledge.

Deming, W. E., von Neumann, J., & Morgenstern, O. (1945). Theory of Games and Economic Behavior. In Journal of the American Statistical Association (Vol. 40).

Dermot, G. (1974). Sharing the Gains from Regional Cooperation : A Game Theoretic Application to Planning Investment in Electric Power. International Economic Review, 15(1), 195–208.

DiCicco-Bloom, B., & Gibson, D. R. (2010). More than a game: Sociological theory from the theories of games. Sociological Theory, 28(3), 247–271.

Elster, J. (1989). The cement of society: A study of social order. Cambridge University Press.

Flood, M., Lendenmann, K., & Rapoport. (1983). 2 x 2 Games Played by Rats: Different Delays of Reinforcement as Payoffs. In Behavioral Sciences (Vol. 28).

Fox, John, & Guyer, M. (1973). Equivalence and Stooge Strategies in Zero-Sum Games. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 17(3), 513–533.

Gates, S and Hume, B. D. (2000). Games, Information, and Politics. The University of Michigan.

Giacomo, B. (2018). Game Theory. Great Space Independent Publishing Platform.

Government, U. A. E. (n.d.). The United Arab Emirates Constitution. United Arab Emirates Oficial Gazette.

Guerrien, B. (2018). On the Current State of Game Theory. Real World Economic Review, (83), 35–44.

Guyer, M., & Perkel, B. (1972). Experimental Games: A Bibliography 1945-1971. In Communication No.293.

Hagemann, H., Kufenko, V., & Raskov, D. (2016). Game theory modeling for the Cold War on both sides of the Iron Curtain. History of the Human Sciences, 29(4–5), 99–124.

Hampton, J. (1987). Free Rider Problem in the Production of Collective Goods (Vol. 3).

Harsanyi, J. (1967). Games of Incomplete information Played by Bayesian Policy makers. In Management Sciences.

Hausman, D., McPherson, M., & Satz, D. (2018). Economic Analysis, Moral Philosophy, and Public Policy. In Economic Analysis, Moral Philosophy, and Public Policy.

Haywood, O. G., J. (1950). Military and Game Theory and the Mathematical Theory of Games. Air University Quarterly Review, 4, 17–30.

Hermans, L., Cunningham, S., & Slinger, J. (2014). The usefulness of game theory as a method for policy evaluation. Evaluation, 20(1), 10–25.

Hsueh, C. . (2015). The Influence of an internationalizing Coalition on Poltical Leaders: A Key Immediate Variable in the Relation between of Trade Interdependence & International Conflict. Political Science Review, 1(1), 147–240.

Kaufman, H., & Lamb, J. C. (1967). An Empirical Test Of Game Theory As A Descriptive Model. Perceptual And Motor Skills, 24(3), 951–960.

Kosfeld, M., Okada, A., & Riedl, A. (2009). Institution formation in public goods games. American Economic Review, 99(4), 1335–1355.

Lambertini, L. (2011). Game Theory in the Social Sciences (ist editio). New York: Routledge.

Lewis. (2014). Rational Choice: A Survey of Contributions from Economics and Philosophy. In J. Ravenhill (Ed.), Global Political Economy (pp. 51–73). Oxford University Press.

Lewis, D. (2008). Convention: A Philosophical Study. In Convention: A Philosophical Study.

Luce, R. D., & Raiffa, H. (1989). Games and Decisions. In Games and Decisions.

Lumsden, M. (1973). The Cyprus Conflict as a Prisoner’s Dilemma Game. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 17(1), 7–32.

Malcolm, D., & Lieberman, B. (1965). The behavior of responsive individuals playing a two-person, zero-sum game requiring the use of mixed strategies. Psychonomic Science, 2(12), 373–374.

Mansour, A. (2008). The impact of privatization on the United Arab Emirates (UAE) federal public sector. International Public Management Review, 9(2), 66–89. Retrieved from$FILE/Mansour_IPMR_Volume 9_Issue 2.pdf

Mansour, A. (2018). The Experience of New Public Management and New Public Governance in Selected Arab Countries. Contemporary Arab Affairs, 11(3), 85–112.

Maschler, M., & Davis, M. (1965). The kernel of a cooperative game. Naval Research Logistics Quarterly, 12(3), 223–259.

McCain, R. (2015). Game Theory and Public Policy. In Game Theory and Public Policy.

McCain, R. A. (2015). Game Theory and Public Policy. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.

McCarty, N., & Meirowitz, A. (2007). Political game theory: An introduction. In Political Game Theory: An Introduction.

Mesquita, B. B. de. (2006). Game Theory, Political Economy, and the Evolving Study of War and Peace. American Political Science Review, 100(4), 637–642. Retrieved from papers2://publication/uuid/278FDFF4-FE87-4F10-9FB8-C98E5FB914EA

Michael C., T. (1987). Philosophy of Cooperation. Cambridge University Press.

Miller, G., Bartos, O. J., & Wehr, P. (2002). Using Conflict Theory. In Contemporary Sociology (Vol. 32).

Morrow, J. (1994). Game Theory for Political Scientists Ch 2-4. Princeton University Press.

Munnc, & Gerardo, L. (2001). GAME THEORY AND COMPARATIVE POLITICS: NEW PERSPECTIVES AND OLD CONCERNS. World Politics, 53(2), 173–204. Retrieved from

Nash, J. F. (1950). The Bargaining Problem. Econometrica, 18(2), 155–162.

Nash, J. F. (1951). Non-Cooperative Games.

O. G. Haywood, J. (1954). Military Decision and Game Theory. Journal of the Operations Research Society of America, 2(4), 365–385.

Ordeshook, P. C. (1992). Game theory and political theory. Cambridge University Press.

Ordeshook, P. C. (1995). Game theory and political theory. In Game theory and political theory.

Parfit, D. (1981). Prudence, Morality, and the Prisoner’s Dilemma. Proceedings of the British Academy.

Pate, J. L., Broughton, E. D., & Letterman, L. K. (1974). Learning in Two-Person Games. Psychological Reports.

Payne, W. (1965). Acquisition of Strategies in Gaming Situations. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 20(2), 473–479.

Putnam, R. D. (1988). Diplomacy and domestic politics: the logic of two-level games. International Organization, 42(3), 427–460.

Riker, W. S. (1962). The Theory of Political Coalitions.

Roemer, J. E. (2014). Kantian optimization: A microfoundation for cooperation. Journal of Public Economics, 127, 45–57.

Rubinstein, A. (2013). How Game Theory will Solve the Problems of the Euro Bloc and Stop Iranaian Nukes. Franfurter Allegmeine.

Russell, H. (1982). Collective Action. John Hopkins University.

Russell, H. (1988). Morality Within the Limits of Reason (Vol. 24). Chicago University Press.

Sakaguchi, M. (1960). Reports on Experimental Games. Statistical Applied Research JUSE, 7, 156–165.

Samuelson, L. (2016). Game theory in economics and beyond. Journal of Economic Perspective, 30(5), 89–115.

Schelling, T. (1978). Micromotives and Macrobehavior. Journal of Macromarketing, Vol. 2. Norton.

Schonfeld, S. (2015). Jaywalking or Joywalking: A Game Theory Approach to Policy-Making. Student Economic Review, 29.

Selten, R. (1975). Reexamination of the perfectness concept for equilibrium points in extensive games. International Journal of Game Theory, 4(1), 25–55.

Shapley, L. S., & Shubik, M. (1954). A Method for Evaluating the Distribution of Power in a Committee System. American Political Science Review, 48(03), 787–792.

Shubik, M. (1982). Game theory in the social sciences.

Shubik, Martin. (1973). Game theory and political science. Working Paper.

Smith, V. L. (1992). Game Theory and Experimental Economics: Beginnings and Early Influences. In E. R. Weintraub (Ed.), Toward a History of Game Theory: Annual Supplements to Volume 24 History of Political Economy (Vol. 24, pp. 241–282).

Snidal, D. (1985). Game theory in International Relations. World Politics, 38(1), 25–57.

von Neumann, J., Morgenstern, O., Kuhn, H. W., & Rubinstein, A. (1944). Theory of Games and Economic Behavior. Princeton University Press.

Wrightsman, L. S., O’Conner, J., & Baker, N. J. (1972). Cooperation and Competition: Readings in Mixed Motives Games. In Cooperation and Competition: Readings in Mixed Motives Games. Brooks/Cole.

Yang, K. (2007). Quantitative Methods in Foreign Policy Analysis. In and M. S. Frank Fisher, Gerald J. Miller (Ed.), Handbook of Policy Analysis: Theories, Politics, and Methods (pp. 349–367).




How to Cite

Ahmed Mustafa Elhussein Mansour. (2020). Game Theory in Political Science and Public Policy: The Case of the Establishment of the United Arab Emirates. SOCIALSCI JOURNAL, 6, 86-107. Retrieved from



Research Articles