https://purkh.com/index.php/tosocial/issue/feed SOCIALSCI JOURNAL 2020-04-30T04:08:09+00:00 Gurdev Singh editor@purkh.com Open Journal Systems <p>The principal purpose of the journal is to publish scholarly work in the&nbsp;social sciences&nbsp;defined in the classical sense, that is in the social sciences, the humanities, and the natural sciences. The research that is published may take a theoretical or speculative model as well as statistical and mathematical. Contributions are welcome from all fields which have relevant and insightful comments to make about the social sciences.</p> https://purkh.com/index.php/tosocial/article/view/628 Tax Plannıng and Fırm Value: An Empırıcal Analysıs of Consumer Goods Manufacturıng Companıes in Cyprus 2020-04-17T10:17:39+00:00 Dr. Esra SIPAHI dresrasipahi@gmail.com <p>The study identifies the impact of tax planning on the firm value of consumer goods manufacturing companies in Cyprus. The specific objectives are to determine the impact of firm and leverage on firm value of Cypriot consumer goods manufacturing companies. The data included in the study were collected from the annual reports and accounts of consumer goods of the manufacturing companies in Cyprus and formulated hypotheses were tested with multiple regression analysis. The result had a positive effect on our leverage dependent variable. Based on the findings of the study, the application of the study with more samples may be recommended for future studies.</p> 2020-04-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Dr. Esra SIPAHI https://purkh.com/index.php/tosocial/article/view/661 A Study of Written Grammatical Errors of the Indian Subcontinent Learners: A Systematic Revie 2020-04-17T10:17:17+00:00 Ali Akbar Khansir a.khansiri@gmail.com <p>This paper investigates A Study of Written Grammatical Errors of the Indian Subcontinent Learners in English settings from 2008 to 2018. Grammar is one of the most important subjects in English language that has been discussed among great scholars, teachers, syllabus designers in the history of English language teaching. Grammar plays vital role in increasing and decreasing the knowledge of English language learners is not only in non- English –speaking countries settings but also in English –speaking countries. Therefore, English grammar is still a big problem for English native students in their classrooms. Error analysis is used as one of the language learning strategies in which focuses on language competence of language learners in the target language. Thus, the error analysis approach was coined by Corder in 1967. In this study, researchers have tried to study the written grammatical errors committed by Indian Subcontinent students in English language from 2008 to 2018 and suggested remedial measures to improve the written grammatical errors from the research works. In addition, for various historical reasons, English has, for more than two hundred years, been growing in the Indian socio-cultural setting. We hope that this paper examines a systematic study of learners' errors in this area. Finally, the researcher of this paper examined the previous research works on grammatical errors in the English language, which were published from 2008 to 2018 in the Indian Subcontinent. In addition, of 150 research papers were examined in the paper, 36 of the research papers were relevant.</p> 2020-04-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Ali Akbar Khansir https://purkh.com/index.php/tosocial/article/view/669 Information Dynamic Analyses on American Football 2020-04-17T10:17:15+00:00 Takeo Nakagawa npo.hakusan@kjc.biglobe.ne.jp Ai Nakagawa npo.hakusan@kjc.biglobe.ne.jp <p>This paper is concerned with the information dynamic analyses on American football games: One is the game in Eastern University American Football League, National Defense Academy vs. Chiba University, and the other is the Rice Bowl (Japan Championship)2020 Final, Fujitsu vs. Kansai University. The former game is so called one-sided one, for National Defense Academy keeps the advantageous position against Chiba University throughout the game except at the normalized time η=0.25. In the range that the normalized time η is greater than the value of 0.75, the model curve of ξ =η<sup>7</sup> shows good agreement with game data. It is found that the game point is at the normalized time η 0.9, where the game outcome becomes definitive and is the cross point between the certainty of game outcome ξ and the uncertainty of game outcome ς. The latter game modelled by ξ=η<sup>1.5</sup> is typical one-sided one, and the game point is at the normalized time η0.62. The two characteristic points in American football become evident through the present work, viz. (a)rules are rational and well organized, though sometimes they are too complicated, and (b)anyone can easily participate in the game not only as player, but supervisor, coach, cheer girl or member of cheering party, and/or supporter. </p> 2020-04-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Takeo Nakagawa, Ai Nakagawa https://purkh.com/index.php/tosocial/article/view/689 Impact of climate Change on Agriculture and Food Security in Nigeria 2020-04-17T10:17:13+00:00 Eneji Mathias Agri agrieneji@yahoo.com <p>This research work examined the impact of Climate change on agriculture and Food Security in Nigeria from 1998 to 2018. The study adopted secondary data and the Ordinary Least Square (OLS) technique, involving a multiple regression model to analyze the causal relationship and coefficient of determination of climate change on food production and food security, as well as considering Agricultural Technology Innovation as alternative solution to the problems of climatic changes in Agriculture. The study employed annual time series data sourced from C.B.N. Statistical Bulletin. Agricultural Output was used as a proxy for Food security (dependent variable). Annual Rainfall and carbon dioxide were used as proxies for Climate change while Value Added in Agriculture and Government Expenditure on Agriculture were used as proxies for Agricultural Technology Innovation. The regression result revealed that there is a negative relationship between the dependent variable Agricultural Output (AO) and the independent variables Average Rainfall (ARF) and Carbon dioxide (Co2), as revealed by the values of their coefficients (-0.341801 and -20.56647). This result indicated that Climate change is not healthy for Food Security in Nigeria. The OLS result also revealed that there is a negative relationship between Agricultural Output and Value Added in Agriculture while there is a positive relationship between Agricultural Output and Government Expenditure as shown by the values of their coefficients (-0.102 and 4.58). The study recommended that the government should take proactive steps in addressing environmental problems which includes effective management of waste, flood and erosion.</p> 2020-04-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Eneji Mathias Agri https://purkh.com/index.php/tosocial/article/view/693 Social Dynamics of Compensation and Job Satisfaction Among Employees of Selected Banks in Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria 2020-04-17T10:17:11+00:00 Samuel Ayodeji Omolawal shomolawal@gmail.com Sherifat Temitope Ayilara <p>This paper focusses on social dynamics of compensation and job satisfaction among employees of selected banks in Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria. Cross-sectional survey design was adopted, primary data were collected using questionnaire administered on 310 respondents using total enumeration sampling. Data were analysed using statistical techniques including T-test, Chi-square. Findings revealed that there was a strong positive correlation between reward and job satisfaction (r = .439, n = 155, p &lt; .0005); male bank workers were more satisfied with their reward system than the female (M = 42.91, SD = 8.619); [M = 36.88, SD = 9.022; t (153) = 3.771, p = .000]; workers above 30 years of age were more satisfied with their reward systems than workers below age 30 group (M = 101.571, SD = 12.613); [M = 93.625, SD = 9.974; t (73) = 3.044, p = .003). Workers earning above 100,000 naira monthly had higher job satisfaction (M = 101.571, SD = 12.613) than those earning below 100,000 naira [M = 93.625, SD = 9.974; t (73) = 3.044, p = .046). The paper concludes that it is very essential for organizations to provide good compensation system for their workers to enhance their job satisfaction.</p> 2020-04-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Samuel Omolawal https://purkh.com/index.php/tosocial/article/view/694 Utilization of Almanaque Panayanon as Source of Information 2020-04-17T10:17:11+00:00 Rosslin John Robles rjrobles@usa.edu.ph <p>Almanaque Panayanon Is The Only Annual Pamphlet In Hiligaynon Which Existed From 1905 Up To The Present. The Pamphlet Contains Dates, Lunar Cycles, Tides, And So Forth, Is Still Consulted When Significant Activities Are To Be Held. This Study Was Conducted To Determine The Use Of Almanaque Panayanhon To Farmers As A Source Of Information In Terms Of Subscription, The Contents Frequently Read, Purpose, And Perceived Level Of Trustworthiness. A Survey Was Administered To Respondents From Selected Communities From The Towns In Panay. The Result Shows That Respondents Seldom Purchase/Subscribe To Almanaque Panayanhon. All Of The Respondents Prefer Almanaque Panayanhon As A Source Of Information Related To Farming, Weather, And Religion Followed By A Calendar While Only A Few Read Newspapers And Magazines.</p> 2020-04-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Rosslin John Robles https://purkh.com/index.php/tosocial/article/view/710 Game Theory in Political Science and Public Policy: The Case of the Establishment of the United Arab Emirates 2020-04-17T10:17:07+00:00 Ahmed Mustafa Elhussein Mansour ahmede@uaeu.ac.ae <p>The objective of this article is quasi-experimental. By using the logic of game theory to explain the establishment of the state of the United Arab Emirates, the article intends to test the ability of game theory to explain a pre-played game. Although formal game theory is not susceptible to experimentation, game to political science and public policy is like experiments to psychology. Hence this paper attempts to use the already played game of the establishment of the state of the United Arab Emirates as an experiment to answer the question: is the outcome of this game conforms with game theory modeling. Thus, the article models that game as the Extended Battle of Sexes game and use both the normal and extensive forms to address that question.</p> 2020-04-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Ahmed Mustafa Elhussein Mansour https://purkh.com/index.php/tosocial/article/view/716 Enhancing Development of Soft Skills among Technical Vocational Education and Training Students towards Achieving the Sustainable Development Goals 2020-04-17T10:17:06+00:00 Jane Itohan Oviawe janeoviawe98@gmail.com <p>Soft skills are fundamental set of skills for preparing students for life long and work in today’s global world. Knowledge, innovation and creativity play key functions in developing human capital, which is a core driver of economic progress and sustainable development globally. It is in line with this background that this paper examined the development of soft skills in Technical Vocational Education and Training (TVET) students towards achieving Sustainable Development Goals. The paper looked at the concept of TVET, reasons for promoting soft skills in TVET and discussed soft skills for sustainable development. These soft skills include innovation skills, critical thinking skills, creativity skills, problem-solving skills, communication skills, collaboration skills, among others. The paper also highlighted who today’s teachers and students are; and discussed the roles of TVET teachers in developing soft skills in students. Also examined in the paper are instructional methods for developing soft skills in TVET. The paper suggested that TVET teachers should balance direct instruction with project-oriented instructional delivery, among others.</p> 2020-04-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Jane Itohan Oviawe https://purkh.com/index.php/tosocial/article/view/726 Teacher Resourcıng Tlms Practıces and Perceptıons: Its Effects on Students’ Performance 2020-04-18T04:51:11+00:00 Dr. Esra Sipahi dresrasipahi@gmail.com <p>This study investigated the teachers’ practices and perceptions in resourcing teaching and learning materials and examined how these affected the performance of the students in the core subjects. Participants of this study were the 243 elementary teachers in District I and District II of Carcar City Division of the Department of Education. For the span of 15 days, the participants were given the survey tool online. The consolidated data were gathered and retrieved from google form database and treated statistically. The results suggested that the teachers’ practices in resourcing learning materials is significantly correlated with the teachers’ perception towards the DepEd Learning Resource Portal and the non-DepEd initiated learning materials provider. Both the teachers’ practices and perceptions towards resourcing TLMs have significant effect on the students’ academic performance. As a result, an action plan for measurement and evaluation of teachers’ learning material resourcing skills is devised. The skills measurement will evaluate the teacher’s subskills such as their responsive skills, ICT skills, writing skills, lay-outing skills, and illustration skills.</p> 2020-04-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Dr. Esra Sipahi https://purkh.com/index.php/tosocial/article/view/727 Authentic High School Research Experiences: A Meta-synthesis 2020-04-18T04:54:19+00:00 Dr. Esra Sipahi dresrasipahi@gmail.com <p>Research is often associated with both positive outcomes and arduous experiences for high school learners. This meta-synthesis aimed to synthesize findings that examined the day to day interactions and practices among research-engaged high school classrooms and how high school learners engaged themselves in the writing of a research paper. The synthesis generated 6 distinct themes with opposing concepts:</p> <p>(1) mapping out the journey vs. navigating independently;</p> <p>(2) privileging product over process;</p> <p>(3) driving on training wheels vs. steering independently;</p> <p>(4) teaching the life beyond while neglecting the primary and secondary skills;</p> <p>(5) climbing the brick wall vs. finding the silver lining and</p> <p>(6) living the new prescription vs. misconstruing research digitization.</p> <p>The synthesis translated into two higher-order concepts:</p> <p>(1) disorientation on inherent challenges and non-preparation for system reworking and</p> <p>(2) balancing preparations and expectations. These concepts consider the experience among high school learners as a foundation for improved instructional practices among teachers and research institutions. </p> 2020-04-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Dr. Esra Sipahi https://purkh.com/index.php/tosocial/article/view/733 Financial Inclusion as A Tool for Survival of Small and Medium Family Enterprises: Lessons for Nigerian Microfinance Banks 2020-04-18T08:53:45+00:00 Odetayo, Tajudeen. A sajuyigbeademola@yahoo.com Ademola Sajuyigbe sajuyigbeademola@yahoo.com Adeyemi, Adewumi. Z sajuyigbeademola@yahoo.com <p>The study evaluates the scope SMFEs have access to funding and examines the challenges against SMFEs accessing finance in Nigeria. Data were collected from 380 participants through a structured questionnaire designed for the study. Simple percentage, mean, standard deviation and factor analysis were employed to analyze the data. The results revealed that many of SMFEs leverage on the informal sector as a vector of inclusion. Furthermore, lack of collateral, interest rate and short payback period were found to be the most factors preventing SMFEs from accessing credit from Nigerian Microfinance banks. Therefore, authorities should act quickly to accelerate progress towards financial inclusion by distributing digital services as simple, flexible and simple alternative channels to reach our areas and rural hinterland. Additionally, financial institutions like microfinance banks must assimilate the objective of inclusion in their overall business plan and accept a holistic strategy to reach the financially invisible.</p> 2020-04-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Odetayo, Tajudeen. A, Ademola Sajuyigbe, Adeyemi, Adewumi. Z https://purkh.com/index.php/tosocial/article/view/737 How Policies Affect Economic Growth of SMEs- Zimbabwean Script 2016-2020 2020-04-17T11:21:21+00:00 Dr. Whatmore Chikwature Whatmorec@Gmail.Com <p>The Research investigates how policies affect economic growth in Zimbabwe after the dollarization of the economy, using primary data obtained from the employees of companies operating in Zimbabwe as well as the Ministry of Industry, Commerce and Enterprise Development and Zimbabwe National Chamber of Commerce staff members. Data collected was presented quantitatively using tables and other quantitative presentations.</p> <p> A total sample size of 224 respondents purposively selected to give their honesty opinion on the topic under study. This study used the Logistics (Logit) model to quantify the impact on economic growth caused by Non-tariff barriers (NTBs) to trade in general, particularly the aforementioned SI 64 of 2016.The results of the study revealed that Anti-dumping Laws and, Intellectual property rights, import licenses and customs valuations are respectively 0.9 times and 0.7 times less likely to yield economic growth in the Zimbabwean context.</p> <p>The findings also suggested that positive improvements in export measures are more than 2 times more likely to ignite economic growth and development and more importantly, a positive strust in implementation of the the Statutory Instrument 64 of 2016 is approximately 1.13 times more likely to yield significant economic growth in general particularly in the Zimbabwean context. </p> <p>Those economic agents who understood the concept were very receptive and supportive. However, some who felt that their value chain had been interrupted perceived the Statutory Instrument to have done more harm than good since its inception in 2016. Proponents of a negative impact of SI 64 of 2016 on the Zimbabwean economy include; informal cross-border traders and most small to medium local companies (SMEs) who survived on imports for their business.</p> 2020-04-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Dr. Whatmore Chikwature https://purkh.com/index.php/tosocial/article/view/705 Elementary School Size and Student Progress Differences by Ethnicity/Race: 2020-04-07T04:30:31+00:00 Amy C Busby stdabc16@shsu.edu Cynthia Martinez-Garcia cmg021@shsu.edu John R Slate profslate@aol.com <p>In this investigation, the degree to which student enrollment (i.e., school size) at elementary schools was related to student progress on the State of Texas reading and mathematics state-mandated assessments was examined for White, Black, and Hispanic students. Archival data available on the Texas Academic Performance Report were analyzed for the 2013-2014, 2014-2015, 2016-2017, and 2017-2018 school years. Inferential analyses revealed the presence of statistically significant differences, with below small to small effect sizes. Large-size schools had statistically significantly higher reading and mathematics progress rates than Small-size schools in 6 of the 9 analyses for White students. In 6 of the 9 analyses, school size was not related to student progress in reading or mathematics for Hispanic students. Small-size schools had statistically significantly higher progress rates in mathematics for Hispanic students than Moderate-size schools. Large-size, Moderate-size, and Small-size schools had similar progress rates in reading and mathematics for Black students in 8 of the 9 analyses. Implications for policy and practice, as well as recommendations for research, are provided. </p> 2020-04-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Dr. Amy Busby, Dr. Cynthia Martinez-Garcia, Dr. John R. Slate