SOCIALSCI JOURNAL <p>The principal purpose of the journal is to publish scholarly work in the&nbsp;social sciences&nbsp;defined in the classical sense, that is in the social sciences, the humanities, and the natural sciences. The research that is published may take a theoretical or speculative model as well as statistical and mathematical. Contributions are welcome from all fields which have relevant and insightful comments to make about the social sciences.</p> PURKH en-US SOCIALSCI JOURNAL 2581-6624 <p>The author warrants that the article is original, written by stated author(s), has not been published before, contains no unlawful statements, does not infringe the rights of others, is subject to copyright that is vested exclusively in the author and free of any third party rights, and that any necessary written permissions to quote from other sources have been obtained by the author(s).</p> Editorial, Volume 5 (2019) <p>On behalf of the Editorial Board, it is with great pride and sincere privilege that I am writing this message to present the volume 5 (2019) of the&nbsp;<em>SOCIALSCI JOURNAL</em>. The issue comes from a long process, and we took all the necessary steps to make it a high-caliber scientific publication. We are relying on the collaboration of all our Editors, reviewers, and contributors to make it a contemporary, lively, and relevant publication.</p> Prof. Falendra Kumar Sudan Copyright (c) 2019-12-30 2019-12-30 5 Annual Reviewer Acknowledgement <p>The Editorial team of the journal would like to thank the following reviewers for their work in refereeing manuscripts during 2019</p> Prof. Falendra Kumar Sudan Copyright (c) 2019 Chief Editor 2019-12-21 2019-12-21 5 Sustainable Health in the Times of SDGs- Voices from the Margins <p>The present chapter reflects on health care availability, utilization and pattern of morbidity in the slum. The first part deals with the general profile of the public health, proximate causes of the ill health, which provides insight about the general profile of the infrastructure and basic amenities position vis a vis slum. The second part is related the health care utilization in slums namely services of the medical institutions, charges of the private medical institutions and clinics, source of treatment, reason for choosing the source of treatment, satisfaction with the treatment, user charge. This section also includes access to the health care services in the slums and the mode of transport used for the utilization of the health care services. The third aspect of the study is related to the pattern of morbidity in slums includes illness in the last month, ailment on the survey date, hospitalisation in one year, average morbidity and hospitalisation rate in one year of three slums, type of ailment, ailment of the head of the household, ailment of the family members, no of days of inactivity and lastly analysis of the common problems and health status of slum dwellers, treatment sought and the proximate reasons for the ailments in slums been done.</p> Sanghmitra Sheel Acharya Dr Gobinda C Pal Dr Usha Ram Copyright (c) 2019 Sanghmitra Sheel Acharya 2019-12-16 2019-12-16 5 1 15 Leadership Styles, Entrepreneurial Orientation and Business Performance: Empirical Investigation of Small and Medium Enterprises in Osun State, Nigeria <p>This study examined the relationship between leadership styles, entrepreneurial orientation and performance of SMEs in Osun State, Nigeria. The study comprises a quantitative survey of 60 Small scale businesses. The data was collected from the business organizations operating in Osogbo metropolis, Osun State, Nigeria through a self-administered questionnaire. The study covered bakery, block making and packaged water. In this study, SME is referred to firms that engaged between 10 and 50 employees. Linear regression was used for the data analysis.&nbsp; The study revealed that transformational and transactional leadership have positive and significant effect on performance of SMEs. It was found that entrepreneurial orientation has positive and significant effect on performance of SMEs.&nbsp; It was also revealed that transformational leadership, transactional leadership and entrepreneurial orientation were independently contributed 50.4%, 49.5% and 48.9% to business performance respectively. It was concluded that leadership styles and entrepreneurial orientation of SMEs operators influenced the success and survival of the SMEs in Osun State, Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> Ademola Sajuyigbe Fadeyibi, Isaac Olugbenga Copyright (c) 2019 Ademola Sajuyigbe, Fadeyibi, Isaac Olugbenga 2019-12-16 2019-12-16 5 16 25 Japan Judo Championship 2019 <p>This paper is concerned with the case studies on Final and Semi-final in All Japan Judo Championship 2019, and is analyzing the relevant data in terms of the information dynamic model.&nbsp; The Final is a typical balanced game, which is finished by the Golden Score, while the Semi-final is classified as one-sided game. In the Semi-final, it has been shown that the winner gets the safety lead against the loser at the normalized time η0.8, which means that outcome of this match becomes definite at the stage, 80% of the total game length. It is inferred that in the All Japan Judo Championship, the sudden death of both players will occur, but drawn game cannot be expected anymore, as far as the current refereeing rules are sustained. It is realized that the present approach is promising to predict the history and outcome of any game before it starts, so that it is useful for preparing the tactics or strategy for future games.</p> Takeo Nakagawa Copyright (c) 2019 Takeo Nakagawa 2019-12-16 2019-12-16 5 26 39 Information Dynamics in Baseball <p>This study is concerned with the information dynamics in baseball. This simulates and models the history of professional baseball game Carp vs. Giants in Japan Central League , and provides us useful strategy and/or tactic for coping with the future games, and method for predicting the game outcomes. The game, Carp vs. Giants is quite a unique one, for Giants keeps the advantage against Carp over 90% of the total game length, but is reversed by Carp just before the end. Thus, this game should be called as one-sided game by Giants, though Carp becomes the winner.&nbsp;&nbsp; It is found that a model curve for height, which initial slope angle coincides with that of data curve, provides the minimum current value of height depending on the time. Usefulness of the information dynamic model for predicting game outcome has been demonstrated: It is predicted in such a way that the author’s granddaughter in 10 years old on August 13, 2018 will increase her height in 10 years from 127.5 cm to 167.6 cm.</p> Takeo Nakagawa Copyright (c) 2019 Takeo Nakagawa 2019-12-16 2019-12-16 5 40 54 Waka: Japanese and Peace Poem <p>This letter is concerned with Waka, which is 31 syllables poem in Japan. The rules and the way how to appreciate it has been introduced and discussed.&nbsp;&nbsp; It is realized that Waka is a short literal sculpture based on pointillism, and filling enormous amount of contents regarding emotion and scenery.&nbsp;&nbsp; It is suggested that Waka could contribute to create peaceful world, which is entangled at present.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Takeo Nakagawa Copyright (c) 2019 Takeo Nakagawa 2019-12-16 2019-12-16 5 55 62 Three Wakas at Evening in The Autumn with Reference to Tea Ceremony <p>This letter is concerned with the three Wakas at evening in the autumn, which may be most popular and are compiled in Shin-Kokinwakashu.&nbsp; It is realized that Waka is a short literal sculpture based on pointillism, and filling enormous amount of contents regarding emotion and/or scenery. &nbsp;The first common characteristic point of these three Wakas is to be paused at the end of the third passage, respectively.&nbsp; The second characteristic point is that the fifth passage is a common phrase.&nbsp;&nbsp; They describe lonely scenery at the mountain, swamp, and seashore, respectively, at evening in the autumn without using any subjective literal expression.&nbsp; It is, therefore, suggested that they become the symbol of a simple tea ceremony, and provide the original idea to establish the standard rules. Japanese people have been continued to be influenced by the rules in their daily lives for long time.</p> Takeo Nakagawa Copyright (c) 2019 Takeo Nakagawa 2019-12-16 2019-12-16 5 63 68 Boko Haram Insurgency and The Underdevelopment of Girl- Child in Nigeria: Implication for National Development <p>In recent times, however, millions of girl child in Northeastern schools in Nigeria are caught up in conflicts that result in insecurity which affect their school attendance and their lives. This paper examines the effect of Boko Haram Insurgency on girl- child attendance in secondary schools in North-Eastern Nigeria. The study purposively selects three states in northeastern Nigeria. &nbsp;The study employed primary and secondary data; 360 respondents were randomly selected. The Ordinary Least Square (OLS) regression model was used to analyses data collected. The OLS regression model result shows that the R<sup>2</sup> is as high as 0.680, this suggests that Boko Haram has an influence on the girl- child attendance in secondary schools Northeastern Nigeria, therefore, the null hypothesis that Boko Haram insurgency has no significant effect on Girl- child attendance in Secondary Schools in Nigeria is rejected. This implies that the Boko Haram insurgency has significant effect on Girl- child attendance in Secondary Schools in Nigeria. The study recommended that professional public-private partnership (4 P’s) should provide all necessary support to teachers and students, who have been affected by violence in northeast Nigeria, this should include rehabilitation and resettlement for those who have been forced to flee to return for academic pursuit.</p> Abur Cyprian Clement Cyprian Clement Abur Copyright (c) 2019 Abur Cyprian Clement, Cyprian Clement Abur 2019-12-16 2019-12-16 5 69 74 Bare Surfaces Analysis Within Ograzhden Mountain (Bulgarian Part) <p>The presence of bare surfaces is one of the main indicators for the degradation of natural ecosystems. The spread of bare surfaces and respectively the lack of vegetation cover is a serious threat to the sustainable development of complex environments such as mountains. The present study focuses on the spatial-temporal relationships of the bare surfaces with the local environment within the Bulgarian part of the small border mountain of Ograzhden. Based on temporal imageries from the Landsat 8 satellite, an analysis of the spatial distribution and tendencies in the development of bare surfaces has been made over a two-year period of time. Overall, the results of the research show a reduction in the total area of bare surfaces on the one hand and a slow environmental recovery on the other. Unfortunately, the positive changes are not ubiquitous but describe only certain areas of the territory of interest.</p> Rosen Iliev Copyright (c) 2019 Rosen Iliev 2019-12-16 2019-12-16 5 75 80 Casualization of Labour in Nigerian Banks and Its Implication on Human Resource Management. <p>Casual employment is identified with significantly large category of workers being treated in a manner that undermined human resource management in Nigeria. Many casual workers do same work as permanent workers and are treated as inferior in terms of rights and conditions of service, despite working regularly for the same employer. The banking sector is of interest to this study. The objectives of this study are to examine the cause of casual employment, ascertain the effects of casualisation of workforce on the human resource management, and recommend solutions to end casualisation of workers in Nigeria. The paper employed the use of secondary data for its analysis. &nbsp;It was observed that casualisation resulted from globalization, weak legal framework, condition of the labour market and profit maximization objective of the was also discovered that casualisation affect the morale, commitment and overall productivity of employees. &nbsp;The paper recommended that government should create minimum standards for employment of labour, enforce the existing law on casualisation, put in place policies, programmes and relevant labour laws aimed at discouraging casualization and consistently improving the labour regulation to embrace the reality of modernization.&nbsp; Workers need some sense of security in their workplace, so employers of contract staff should treat them like humans, offer casual employees the benefit of rights at work and be allowed to work with dignity. The need for vibrant trade unions to organise, and represent casual workers interest by exploring new strategies that will produce result and put an end to the plight of casual employees.</p> <p><strong>KEYWORDS: </strong>&nbsp;Casualisation, Employees, Human Resource Management, Nigeria.</p> Opeyemi Mojisola Alonge Copyright (c) 2019 Opeyemi Mojisola Alonge 2019-12-16 2019-12-16 5 81 85 Underestimating Dengue: A Qualitative Study of Risk Perception in Dhaka, Bangladesh <p>Dengue, a mosquito-borne viral infection, is endemic in Bangladesh. This qualitative case study, drawing on interviews and focus groups, examines a low SES ward, seeking to deepen the exploration of community perceptions of dengue risk and its embeddedness with the socioeconomic and political context in Dhaka. The analysis identifies six overarching themes connected with the underestimation of dengue risk. The underestimation of risk becomes apparent in a reduced concern for dengue and dengue vector control, even despite a notable recent epidemic in 2000 and the ongoing circulation of dengue virus in the population.</p> Afroza Sultana Stacie Burke Copyright (c) 2019 Afroza Sultana, Stacie Burke 2019-12-16 2019-12-16 5 86 98 Millennium Development Goals (Mdgs) The Achievement and Failure: A Comparative Presentation Between Yemen and India in the Light of The Development Sectors’ Indicators <p>&nbsp;To contribute the achievement of sustainable development (SD) goals the Government’s real commitment on SD thoughts in both central and local levels is one of the most important factors. MDGs express widespread public concern about development’s related issues. The Republic of Yemen and the Republic of India, both are eastern countries in the continent of Asia, sharing its cultural and historical heritage. Regarding the development indicators, in 2011 Yemen was among the least developed countries whereas India among the medium developed countries.</p> <p>This paper mainly depended on the secondary data.&nbsp; It depends on the national reports in Yemen and India additional to the international organizations’ reports. It exposes first the main indicators (i.e. Economic, Social, and Environmental) which are the constituents of SD dimensions. The purpose is to get representative access towards comprehending the existing situations while conducting the study. Then, the study outlines detailed schedules and tables about the indicators of the development sectors in the two countries such as the sectors of education, higher education, health, agriculture, water, sanitation, roads, energy and communications with some analyzes and discussions about the extent of achieving MDGs in each sector.</p> Mohammed A. H. Al-Sharafi Nishikant C. Dhande Copyright (c) 2019 Mohammed A. H. Al-Sharafi, Nishikant C. Dhande 2019-12-16 2019-12-16 5 99 123 “O to Gee” (Enough Is Enough), An Exploratory Sociological Analysis of a Political Campaign Slogan in Nigeria <p>All over the world, politicians fancy up their language in a special way to give extract effect and force to their message to the electorate in order to achieve their objective of winning more votes. This language can be embodied in rhetoric, propaganda, promise, colloquialism, word coinages, pidginized and figurative expressions. Attractive political slogans are used by political leaders to inspire and set the mood of public about a particular issues. It is argued that a specific characteristic of political slogans make them the prime instrument for government communication, but at the same time the same characteristic make them the most vulnerable instrument as well. Political campaign slogan has continued to play an important roles in voter’s education and enlightenment in Nigeria. The electorates have witnessed many political campaign slogans such as “one nation, one destiny” of late Shehu Shagari led National Party of Nigeria (NPN), “Hope” of the Late MKO Abiola of the Social Democratic Party (SDP), Gbais bee (take it there) of the “Olusegun Mimiko of Ondo State, “change” of Mohammadu Buhari led All Progressives Congress (APC) and Power to the Peoples of the Peoples Democratic Party (PDP). However, none of these political slogans have a more devasting effect in capturing the mood of the electorates as the “O to gee” (Enough is enough) in Kwara State. Thus, this paper utilized secondary sources of data to interrogate the effect of political campaign slogan in Nigeria with specific reference to Kwara state gubernatorial election conducted in 2019, as evident in the dismantling of the twenty-eight (28)years old famous and powerful Saraki’s political dynasty in the state. It was observed that man as a political and social animals engages in the practice of politics as a social and noble activity to express his political agenda either positively or negatively. Therefore, the paper concluded with some recommendations that if political campaign slogan is well-structured, it is capable of being an effective tool for driving government policies, ensuring mass participation of citizenry in political activities, electioneering process and aiding an election of popular candidates with attractive manifestoes at the poll.&nbsp;</p> Lawal Tolu Copyright (c) 2019 Lawal Tolu 2019-12-16 2019-12-16 5 124 130 World Cup Rugby Japan 2019 The Final, S. Africa Vs. England <p>This paper is concerned with World Cup Rugby Japan 2019 the Final, S. Africa vs. England. A significant improvement of the information dynamic model has been made to make it clear how to solve the boundary layer equation and to know the relation between the flow and game information. For example, the relation between the 1/7<sup>th</sup> velocity distribution law in fluid mechanics and the model in the information dynamics becomes apparent. In the Final, S. Africa always keeps the lead of points throughout the game, but the game itself is quite tight in such a degree that before at 67 minutes within the total time of 80 minutes, England still maintains a chance to reverse the score only by one single try and the following goal. S. Africa keeps the advantage against England, and increases it with increasing the time, and the certainty of game outcome also increases smoothly with increasing the time. The game point of η0.9, which is 90% of the total game length(or time), is found as the cross point between the certainty of game outcome and the uncertainty of game outcome, so that the game outcome is firmly definitive at the time between S. Africa’s first try and the second try. It is inferred that rugby possesses limitless and uncountable potential to promote people’s happiness not only in S. Africa but in any country, and so is worth applying for creating better society in this globe.</p> Takeo Nakagawa Ai Nakagawa Copyright (c) 2019 Takeo Nakagawa, Ai Nakagawa 2019-12-16 2019-12-16 5 131 147 Differences in the 1-Year Persistence Rates of International Students by Their Institutional Status at Texas Community Colleges: A Statewide, Multiyear Investigation <p>In this multiyear, statewide study, the degree to which 1-year persistence rates differed by the institutional status (i.e., stayed or transferred) of International students who were enrolled in Texas community colleges was determined.&nbsp; Inferential statistical procedures revealed the presence of statistically significant differences in 1-year persistence rates between International students who stayed at the same Texas community college and International students who transferred to a different Texas community college.&nbsp; In all cases, the 1-year persistence rates of International students who stayed were higher, 14 to 52 times higher, than the 1-year persistence rate of International students who transferred.&nbsp; In all 15 academic years (i.e., 1999-2000 through 2013-2014), very large effect sizes were present.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Rami I Alsakran John R Slate George Moore Frederick Lunenburg Wally Barnes Copyright (c) 2019 Rami I Alsakran, John R Slate, George Moore, Frederick Lunenburg, Wally Barnes 2019-12-16 2019-12-16 5 148 165 Gender Differences in Postsecondary Enrollment Rates of Texas Public High School <p>Examined in this study was the degree to which gender differences were present in the postsecondary enrollment of Texas public high school graduates at Texas 2-year public colleges and at 4-year public universities.&nbsp; Specifically analyzed were the enrollment percentages of males and females for three academic years (i.e., 2012-2013 through 2014-2015) for Texas public high school graduates.&nbsp; Over the 3-year time period analyzed, statistically significant differences were present in the postsecondary enrollment of Texas public high school graduates by gender.&nbsp; Female Texas public high school graduates enrolled in both 2-year and 4-year public institutions at a higher rate than their male counterparts.&nbsp; Moreover, females tended to enroll at 2-year institutions at a higher rate then 4-year institutions.&nbsp; Implications of these results and recommendations for future research were discussed.</p> Deshonta Holmes John R Slate George Moore Frederick C. Lunenburg Wally Barnes Copyright (c) 2019 Deshonta Holmes, John R Slate, George Moore, Frederick C. Lunenburg, Wally Barnes 2019-12-16 2019-12-16 5 166 178 Ethnic/Racial Differences in Social Studies Skills: A Texas, Multiyear Analysis <p>Investigated in this study was the degree to which differences were present in social studies skills as a function of ethnicity/race (i.e., Asian, White, Hispanic, and Black) of Texas high school students. &nbsp;Data were obtained from the Texas Education Agency Public Education Information Management System for all Texas high school students for the 2004-2005 to the 2011-2012 school years.&nbsp; In this study, statistically significant differences were present in the social studies skills by student ethnicity/race.&nbsp; Asian students had statistically higher average raw scores in four of the five social studies skills objectives examined than White students.&nbsp; Additionally, White students had statistically significantly higher average raw scores than Hispanic students, and Hispanic students had statistically significantly higher average raw scores than Black students for the eight years of data examined.&nbsp; A clear stair-step effect was present by student ethnicity/race in social studies performance.&nbsp; Suggestions for policy and for practice were made, along with recommendations for future research.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> Mary K. Dietrich John R Slate George Moore Frederick C. Lunenburg Copyright (c) 2019 Mary K. Dietrich, John R Slate, George Moore, Frederick C. Lunenburg 2019-12-16 2019-12-16 5 179 202 Status of Phosphorous in Soil and Plants of Apple Orchads in Quetta Valley <p>The study was planned to assess the phosphorous status of apple orchards around Quetta valley through soil and plant analysis. Two hundred soil samples were acquired from 40 different locations of 05 orchards at &nbsp;0-15, 15-30, 30-45, 45-60, 60- 75 and 75-90 cm depths. The soil samples were analyzed for available phosphorous by AB-DTPA method. At the same time forty apple trees were selected for leaves samples and analyzed for plant phosphorous content by Rhoades, 1982 .AB-DTPA phosphorous in soil showed a sizeable variation ranging from 0.24 to 14.46 mg kg<sup>-1</sup>. Whereby plant analysis registered minimum phosphorous content 0.06% and the maximum phosphorous content 0.47% in apple plant leaves which confirms phosphorous concentration found deficient in apple orchards of Quetta valley</p> Zubair Rehman Syed Ishtiaq Hyder Dr Muhammad Arshad Ahmad Khan Rizwan Ahmad Copyright (c) 2019 Zubair Rehman , Syed Ishtiaq Hyder, Dr Muhammad Arshad, Ahmad Khan, Rizwan Ahmad 2019-12-16 2019-12-16 5 203 207 Information Dynamics Towards Serious Game <p>This paper is concerned with information dynamics towards serious game. This study demonstrates that the proposed methodology can provide useful information to analyze game and to predict the outcome, respectively, in terms of soccer and girl’ height based on information dynamic model. &nbsp;A plausible prediction method for human height has been proposed by incorporating the information dynamic model. Girl’s height at 10 years old is predicted until 25 years old, by knowing her height growth rate at starting year.&nbsp;&nbsp; It may be considered that this is a sort of breakthrough on game research: The information dynamic model has been mainly used to do post hoc analyses for the finished games, but it has also potential to predict the game outcome before the start, if initial conditions are given. As a popular and simple game, soccer has been analyzed and presented how advantage and certainty of game outcome depend on the time.&nbsp;&nbsp; In the data analyses, as evaluation function scores in addition to goal, shoot, corner kick, or penalty kick are adopted to conduct refined analyses. The game patterns have been categorized into see-saw, one-sided, balanced and others, and is defined quantitatively, to promote understanding game.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Takeo Nakagawa Ai Nakagawa Copyright (c) 2019 Takeo Nakagawa, Ai Nakagawa 2019-12-16 2019-12-16 5 208 229 Qualitative Study of Consumer Preferences on Local TV Station <p>The&nbsp;research&nbsp;aimed&nbsp;to&nbsp;explore&nbsp;consumer&nbsp;preferences&nbsp;at&nbsp;Jogja&nbsp;TV&nbsp;stations&nbsp;as&nbsp;local&nbsp;TV&nbsp;station.&nbsp;The&nbsp;study&nbsp;uses&nbsp;qualitative&nbsp;methods&nbsp;through&nbsp;interviews&nbsp;in&nbsp;collecting&nbsp;data.&nbsp;Informants&nbsp;in&nbsp;this&nbsp;study&nbsp;are&nbsp;the&nbsp;public&nbsp;as&nbsp;viewers&nbsp;or&nbsp;consumers&nbsp;of&nbsp;Jogja&nbsp;TV&nbsp;and&nbsp;managers&nbsp;of&nbsp;Jogja&nbsp;TV&nbsp;programs.&nbsp;The&nbsp;data&nbsp;analysis&nbsp;technique&nbsp;used&nbsp;is&nbsp;a&nbsp;descriptive&nbsp;interactive&nbsp;model.&nbsp;Based&nbsp;on&nbsp;qualitative&nbsp;analysis&nbsp;it&nbsp;can&nbsp;be&nbsp;concluded&nbsp;that&nbsp;the&nbsp;Jogja&nbsp;TV&nbsp;program&nbsp;is&nbsp;aimed&nbsp;at&nbsp;the&nbsp;people&nbsp;of&nbsp;Special&nbsp;Region&nbsp;of&nbsp;Yogyakarta&nbsp;and&nbsp;surrounding&nbsp;areas&nbsp;including&nbsp;Solo.&nbsp;Viewers&nbsp;are&nbsp;focused&nbsp;on&nbsp;the&nbsp;status&nbsp;of&nbsp;SES&nbsp;C&nbsp;and&nbsp;D.&nbsp;Programs&nbsp;that&nbsp;are&nbsp;the&nbsp;pre-eminent&nbsp;preference&nbsp;of&nbsp;Jogja&nbsp;TV&nbsp;compared&nbsp;to&nbsp;other&nbsp;stations&nbsp;are&nbsp;programs&nbsp;that&nbsp;contain&nbsp;local&nbsp;and&nbsp;cultural&nbsp;content.&nbsp;Jogja&nbsp;TV&nbsp;programs&nbsp;that&nbsp;are&nbsp;the&nbsp;main&nbsp;preference&nbsp;of&nbsp;individual&nbsp;viewers&nbsp;are&nbsp;cultural&nbsp;and&nbsp;information/news&nbsp;programs.&nbsp;Other&nbsp;preferences&nbsp;are&nbsp;caused&nbsp;by&nbsp;regional&nbsp;or&nbsp;local&nbsp;appeal.&nbsp;Local&nbsp;or&nbsp;regional&nbsp;content&nbsp;is&nbsp;an&nbsp;attraction&nbsp;for&nbsp;several&nbsp;viewers.&nbsp;Some&nbsp;constraints&nbsp;related&nbsp;to&nbsp;the&nbsp;preferences&nbsp;of&nbsp;the&nbsp;informants&nbsp;are&nbsp;the&nbsp;problem&nbsp;of&nbsp;image&nbsp;quality,&nbsp;program&nbsp;variation,&nbsp;range&nbsp;and&nbsp;duration&nbsp;of&nbsp;the&nbsp;broadcast.Based&nbsp;on&nbsp;consumer&nbsp;opinion,&nbsp;the&nbsp;election&nbsp;organization&nbsp;on&nbsp;Jogja&nbsp;TV&nbsp;is&nbsp;due&nbsp;to&nbsp;the&nbsp;match&nbsp;between&nbsp;the&nbsp;number&nbsp;of&nbsp;shows,&nbsp;airtime,&nbsp;flexibility,&nbsp;and&nbsp;affordable&nbsp;costs.&nbsp;Based&nbsp;on&nbsp;the&nbsp;perspective&nbsp;of&nbsp;organizational&nbsp;consumers,&nbsp;the&nbsp;selection&nbsp;of&nbsp;Jogja&nbsp;TV&nbsp;has&nbsp;several&nbsp;disadvantages&nbsp;such&nbsp;as&nbsp;the&nbsp;coverage&nbsp;area&nbsp;and&nbsp;the&nbsp;less&nbsp;proactive&nbsp;attitude&nbsp;of&nbsp;Jogja&nbsp;TV.</p> Tony Wijaya Copyright (c) 2019 Tony Wijaya 2019-12-16 2019-12-16 5 230 242 Entrepreneural Personality Features of Business Ownerseffect On Entrepreneurship Trends <p>In addition to education and training, the environment in which he was born and raised, the educational status of his family and his family, his cultural structure and the talents and lifestyles of the people he modeled are effective in the development of human factor. In addition, one's innate character traits, lifestyle, imagination, self-sense and emotional structure also play an important role in gaining entrepreneurial personality traits. In this study, entrepreneurial personality traits and entrepreneurship tendencies of higher education students in Cyprus are investigated and the effect of entrepreneurial personality traits on entrepreneurship tendency is investigated. In addition, the effect of prominent demographic characteristics on these factors is being investigated. In this context, a survey was conducted for the students and the data were evaluated statistically. As a result of the statistical analysis of the obtained data, it was found that the variables of desire for success, innovation, uncertainty tolerance, locus of control, sensuality, family, gender affect the students' entrepreneurial tendency. The sample of the study consists of students studying at the Faculties of Business Administration of universities in Cyprus.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> erkin artantas Copyright (c) 2019 erkin artantas 2019-12-16 2019-12-16 5 243 251 The Leadership Styles, Entrepreneurial Orientation and Business Performance: Empirical Investigation of Small and Medium Enterprises in Osun State, Nigeria <p>This study sought to examine the relationship between leadership styles, entrepreneurial orientation, and performance of SMEs in Osun State, Nigeria. The data were collected from sixty (60) out of one thousand and twenty (1,020) Small and Medium Enterprises operators in Osogbo metropolis that registered with Osun State Ministry of Commerce and Industry in Osogbo metropolis, Osun State, Nigeria through a structured questionnaire. Data analysis was executed with the aid of Correlation and Linear regression. The results revealed that the relationship between transactional leadership, transformational leadership, entrepreneurial orientation, and business performance was positive and significant. It was also revealed that transformational leadership, transactional leadership, and entrepreneurial orientation independently have a significant impact on business performance respectively. It was concluded that leadership styles and entrepreneurial orientation of SMEs operators influenced the success and survival of SMEs in Osun State, Nigeria</p> Ademola Sajuyigbe Fadeyibi Isaac Olugbenga Copyright (c) 2019 Ademola Sajuyigbe, Fadeyibi Isaac Olugbenga 2019-12-16 2019-12-16 5 252 261 Is Self-Esteem Important to Marketing Literature Branding Perspective from Nike’s Sport Wear Industry in Kish Island <p>The purpose of the present study was to determine the impact of variables which create a special value for sport brands like the Nike brand. In other words, the research sought to answer the question of whether customer self-esteem was important for marketing literature. How can it be improved? In addition, for the first time, we examine the relationship between self-esteem and brand addiction in marketing literature. The research method is descriptive-analytical and the research is applied in terms of purpose, which is done by using library studies and field studies from the interview and filling in the questionnaire. The statistical population of the study is 240 of Nike trainers, athletes, customers and sellers in Kish Island. Smart PLS software was used for modeling structural equations and hypothesis testing. The research findings showed that brand attachment has a positive and significant effect on brand love. Brand trust has a positive and significant effect on brand love. Brand love has a positive and significant effect on brand addiction. Brand addiction has a positive and significant effect on consumer self-esteem and also, brand attachment has a positive and significant effect on consumer self-esteem. This paper highlights that brand attachment not only influences the Brand Trust, Brand Love and Self-esteem, but also on negative behaviors, such as Brand Addiction</p> Dariyoush Jamshidi Alireza Rousta Mitra Meijani Copyright (c) 2019 Dariyoush Jamshidi, Alireza Rousta, Mitra Meijani 2019-12-16 2019-12-16 5 262 276 Differences in Teacher and Student Demographic Characteristics by Middle School Accountability Rating: A Statewide, Multiyear Investigation <p>In this investigation, the degree to which the percentage of beginning teachers and student ethnicity/race enrollment percentages in Texas middle schools differed between two distinction designations (i.e., Academic Achievement in Reading/English Language Arts and Academic Achievement in Mathematics) was addressed. Data for the 2012-2013 through the 2015-2016 school years were obtained from the Texas Academic Performance Reports. Statistically significant differences were yielded in the percentage of beginning teachers as a function of distinction designation. Higher percentages of beginning teachers were present in middle schools that did not meet the two distinction designations than in schools that did meet the two distinction designations. With respect to student enrollment percentages by ethnicity/race, higher percentages of Asian students and Hispanic students and lower percentages of Black students and White students were present at schools that met the two distinction designations</p> Samson Alexander Moreno Cynthia Martinez-Garcia John R Slate Copyright (c) 2019 Samson Alexander Moreno, Cynthia Martinez-Garcia, John R Slate 2019-12-16 2019-12-16 5 277 298